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Small aviation is looking for a lift
How in the regions of the Far East solve the big problems of small aircraft, studied EastRussia
To revive small aircraft in the Far East could be a powerful regional lobby, but so far few entities have a holistic and consistent approach to solving the issue. At the end of last year, the government subcommittee supported the project of developing the local air transportation network of the company Aurora in Primorye with the support of the FRDF. The experience of Yakutia, whose authorities have already entered the federal government with complex proposals, is interesting. According to experts, any activity of the business that has the desire and the opportunity to revive small aircraft, faces excessive regulation.
On the development of passenger small aircraft in the Far East, the Russian government will send 1,4 billion rubles, a decision at the end of last year was taken by the government sub-committee chaired by Yuri Trutnev. The funds will be provided by the Far East Development Fund, which will have to finance the most ambitious upgrade of the Far Eastern air fleet in recent years. It's about 32 aircraft DHC-6-400 Twin Otter. These turboprop aircraft produced in Canada will be used to carry passenger traffic to hard-to-reach areas. Operational management of this fleet will be entrusted to the airline "Aurora".
At the first stage of the project, the total investment in which will amount to 1,4 billion rubles, the Fund provided 370 million rubles. for the purchase of one aircraft - in addition to the two already operated "Aurora" in the Primorye Territory DHC-6. This purchase will make it possible, as the regional authorities believe, to increase the regional passenger traffic of the air carrier almost 1,5 times.
In Avrora, development of small aircraft is seen as a priority. "The financial support of the Fund will allow increasing the fleet of DHC-6 aircraft, expanding the geography of flights and the number of flights to remote settlements of the Far East," said General Director of Avrora Avrora Airlines Konstantin Sukhorebrik. According to Aurora estimates, the implementation of the first stage of the program will increase the passenger turnover by 17,9 thousand people.
This is very significant, given that last year, small aircraft in Primorsky Krai transported more than 31,6 thousand passengers to 12 served directions. And in comparison with 2015 year the gain in 10 thousand people is received. According to the Department of Transport and Road Economy of Primorsky Krai, 26,8 thousand people were transported by Aurora on DHC-6 aircraft, the company serves 9 from 12 destinations. Dalnerechensk Avia, based in Khabarovsk Krai, operates on three routes of transportation and by the end of last year it transported about 700 people to An-2, and another 4 thousand passengers - Mi-8 helicopters.
To reduce the final cost of an air ticket, flights are subsidized from the regional budget. Last year, Aurora and Dalnerechensk Avia were allocated 150 million rubles for these purposes. For the maintenance and operation of airports and airfields owned by the Primorsky Territory last year the regional budget sent 379,6 million rubles, this year 444 million rubles have been reserved. In addition, last year 14,3 million rubles were allocated for the construction and reconstruction of landing sites, this year 72,6 million rubles are planned. The acquisition of aircraft in 2016 was spent 343,5 million rubles, this year 406,1 million rubles were reserved.
At the same time, the governor of Primorye, Vladimir Miklushevsky, last year announced a large expansion of the route network. “We are going to open new landing pads, mini-airfields, now we have 13, there will be 22, almost twice as many. And we will increase the frequency of flights, as people asked, ”he said.
The new DHC-6 at the beginning of this year has already come under the control of the coastal authorities of KSUAP "Plastun-Avia", which, thus, has three aircraft operated by Aurora. The leasing agreement was signed in the last days of December 2016 between the regional enterprise "Plastun-Avia" and JSC "Sberbank Leasing". The deal, as previously announced, was concluded with the support of the FRDF. "The fund compensates for 50%, as a result, the cost of purchasing the aircraft and leasing payments are reduced for us. The plane has already been painted in the colors of the airline "Aurora", in January will be sent to Vladivostok ", - said then the Governor of Primorye, Vladimir Miklushevsky.
According to the press service of the Avrora airline, a financial leasing contract for the purchase of the DHC-6 Twin Otter 400 was signed between the regional enterprise Plastun-Avia and JSC Sberbank Leasing within the framework of the state program "Development of the transport complex in Primorye at 2013- 2021 years ». The aircraft was purchased at the expense of subsidies from the regional budget with the subsequent transfer of ownership of it to the Primorsky Territory after the payment of leasing payments. At the same time, as specified in the "Aurora", the aircraft is on the balance sheet of KSUAP "Plastun-Avia", in connection with which the property tax will be paid by the enterprise.
According to the deputy flight director of Aurora Airlines, Viktor Kryuchkov, who was referred to by the coastal authorities, DHC-6 is optimal for work in the region. “He can sit on the grass, and on the swamp, and on the ground. You can even put skis on it, and you can sit on the floats in the sea. People praise the plane, they say it is comfortable, and fast delivery is also provided, ”such words were quoted on the regional administration website.
The airline claims that "at the beginning of the restoration of small aircraft in Primorye, the issue of choosing an aircraft was paramount." Thus, the specialists of JSC Avrora Avrora and PJSC Aeroflot carried out a thorough analysis of aircraft types: Cessna Grand Caravan 208B, Beechcraft King Air 350, L-410, DHC-6-400 Twin Otter. Based on the results of this it was chosen Twin Otter, "as the most suitable from the point of view of flight safety, economic efficiency, and also based on infrastructure restrictions of the Far East." According to representatives of the "Aurora", DHC-6 favorably differs from other types of aircraft due to the possibility of using on ground and short runways (runways). "If we compare it with L-410, then the latter requires a runway of 900 meters, whereas DHC-6 is only about 400 meters. That is, this aircraft can make flights where AN-2 was used in Soviet times. Accordingly, significantly less funds are required to restore the airfield infrastructure. The experience of a two-year, with 2014 for 2016 years, operation in Primorye proved it ", - explained in the press service of the" Aurora ".
According to the press service of the Far Eastern Development Fund, the project has attracted interest in other Far Eastern subjects. "Thanks to the long and cheap money of the Fund, the rate on leasing payment, which is subsidized from the regional budget, will significantly decrease. Therefore, many Far Eastern regions have expressed interest in implementing similar projects on their territory, at present the Fund is discussing the prospects for their implementation. The combination of state support mechanisms with the involvement of the Fund's instruments allows implementing an important program for the development of intraregional air transportation between settlements along routes that compete with bus traffic, at times to increase speed and improve the quality of services, "the FRGD said.
The Aurora claim that the company "has developed an effective system for the restoration of local air transportation, which can be easily scaled in the territory of any region of the Far East, it all depends on the position of the administration of the subject." At the same time, Avrora has its own aviation training center, which prepares flight and technical staff for the operation of DHC-6. Also AUR "Aurora" prepares pilots and engineers DHC-6 and for other Russian airlines. "For each region of Far East, Aurora already has a developed proposal on the route network and tariff policy," the airline noted.
It should be noted that Primorsky Krai is significantly inferior in terms of intraregional traffic of the Sakhalin Region, which is the base region for the airline Aurora (part of the Aeroflot group). Last year, in the island region, 72,7 thousand passengers (with an increase of 7%) were carried by socially significant flights. "Aurora" flies from Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk to Shakhtersk, Okha, Nogliki, Kurilsk, Yuzhno-Kurilsk, last year the regional budget allocated subsidies for these transportations in the amount of 600,6 million rubles.
The nearest neighbor of Primorye, Khabarovsk Territory, also has large uninhabited spaces and small settlements scattered among them. But here the situation with small aircraft is somewhat different. First of all, here, even in the most difficult years, aviation traffic was provided by gold mining companies in the northern regions. At the same time, passenger traffic on domestic flights has been steadily declining in recent years.
Regular air transportation in the region is carried out by KGUP Khabarovsk Airlines and the private JSC Vostok Airlines. Air transportation in the region is carried out on 13 subsidized routes, where, as a rule, air transport has no alternative. In 2016, according to the press service of the government of the Khabarovsk Territory, airlines carried 60,8 thousand passengers on regular flights. Including Khabarovsk Airlines - 59,5 thousand passengers, Vostok Airlines - 1,3 thousand passengers. In 2015, we note, by air transport 62,39 thousand passengers, a year earlier - 68,4 thousand passengers. At the same time, the main reason for the decrease in passenger traffic in the Ministry of Industry and Transport of the Khabarovsk Territory is the growth of costs and tariffs. "On the local air lines of the region, tariffs increased in 2012 by 10%, since 2014 by 5%, since 2015 by 10,5%," the government documents say. As in Primorye, flights are subsidized from the regional budget. In 2016, 625,2 million rubles were allocated for these purposes. This includes 19,3 million rubles for Vostok Airlines, 605,85 million rubles for Khabarovsk Airlines, of which 46,1 million rubles are intended to pay lease payments. A year earlier, as follows from the report of the Ministry of Industry and Transport of the Khabarovsk Territory, the airlines received 472,6 million rubles, including 20,6 million rubles to reimburse leasing payments.
We are talking about the leasing of aircraft L-410 Czech plant Aircraft Industries (100% belongs to UMMC). The first two aircraft were purchased in 2013 for 185 million rubles. each. As the governor of the region, Vyacheslav Shport, stated at the time, these planes are best suited for the Far East, "the hour of flight operation costs about 40 thousand rubles, our planes, I will not call their brand - about 100 thousand rubles." Within the framework of the program "Development of the transport system of the Khabarovsk Territory" for the period 2013-2020, five such aircraft were planned to be purchased, and at the beginning of last year the fourth L-399,9 was bought for 410 million rubles. The program also envisaged the establishment of the L-410 service center at Khabarovsk airport and even the deployment of industrial enterprises for the manufacture of aircraft components there. But most of these plans are currently on paper - both because of a lack of funding and because of the decline in passenger traffic in the crisis years.
Hopes for the growth of transportation in the region are associated with the investment projects being implemented in the region. So, in December of last year, the regional authorities and representatives of the Siberian Coal and Energy Company flew to the village of Chegdomyn, where the subsidiary company SUEK, OJSC Urgalugol, operates. In Soviet times, the airport was active in this village, which took several flights a day, now only the landing pad is preserved. Based on the results of the voyage in the first quarter of 2017, a feasibility study on the resumption of air traffic should be prepared. "SUEK acts as a partner of regional authorities here. This is due to the implementation of the "Big Chegdomyn" project for the development of mono-settlement, as well as the investment project of OJSC "Urgalugol" for coal mining and enrichment, "the regional press service reported earlier.
In addition, in late January, the regional authorities agreed with Aurora to open the Vladivostok-Komsomolsk-on-Amur route on a Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 aircraft, the issue of opening the Komsomolsk-Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk flight is being resolved. “We have good prospects for the development of air travel. This is both internal communication - for this we will modernize the airfield network and acquire new aircraft, as well as external. The City of Youth today is one of our main points of growth and the development of its transport accessibility is our main priority, ”said Governor Vyacheslav Shport.
Kamchatka is very active in terms of business projects, which not only depends on domestic airlines, but also seeks to develop transportation in terms of tourist flow. In 2016, 68,4 thousand people were transported by them and over 580 million rubles were directed to subsidize air transportation from the regional budget.
The great hopes of the Kamchatka authorities are related to the development of domestic tourism. Thus, the helicopter company "Vityaz-Aero", which carries out both regular transportations and tourist flights, entered the territory of advanced development "Kamchatka" with the project of modernization of its airport in the village of Nikolaevka. The company's airbase is located there, in development of which, with the support of the Corporation for the Development of the Far East, about 50 million rubles will be invested (in the future up to 600 million rubles), and the expected passenger traffic is estimated at 30 thousand people per year. "In the future, we plan to build a runway in Nikolaevka village from 800 to 1600 meters. It will have all the necessary infrastructure for the reception and maintenance of aircraft with a capacity of up to 20 people, "the press service of the KRDV quoted Viktor Sirotin, the general director of Vityaz-Aero.
Even in subjects with small volumes of traffic there is a long-established backbone of local airlines, and regional authorities are trying to gradually develop air communication with remote villages. For example, in Magadan Oblast with an annual volume of domestic air transportation, several airlines operate in 12-13 thousand people: the Magadan branch of PANH PKH (five Mi-8 helicopters), Polar-Avia LLC (six Mi- 8 and five An-2 aircraft), and SILA (five An-28 aircraft). Air transportation is carried out in 11 directions and by the end of the year cost the regional budget in 194,1 million rubles. In late January, the authorities of the Magadan region announced their intention to revive the Magadan-13 airport, which today is the hub of small aviation. The project is estimated at 25 million rubles, it is planned to repair the landing pad and aprons, install fencing and organize regular flights.
"At the initial stage, he will receive planes An-2, An-3, MI-8 helicopters. In the next stages, we plan to use it to receive An-28 aircraft for our intra-regional passenger traffic, "said Sergei Erokhin, head of the road and transport department of the Ministry of Roads, Transport and Communications of the Magadan Region.
In the Amur region, the transportation of passengers on local air routes is carried out by GAU "Amur airbase" on An-2 aircraft. There are four subsidized routes, covering 11 settlements, to which the regional budget allocated 42,3 million rubles last year. At the end of the year, about 2,7 thousand passengers were transported.
In Chukotka, the main carrier on local airlines is the state unitary enterprise ChukotAvia, which, according to 2015, carried 39,7 thousand people. The company has one An-24, three An-26 and four DHC-6 aircraft, as well as nine Mi-8 helicopters.
In general, it is worth noting, it is the need to pay part of the cost of flights from the local budget is the main deterrent to the expansion of local air transportation. Therefore, regions with a scarce budget without solving their financial problems are unlikely to be able to count on "scaling the local transportation system" proposed by Aurora. In addition, as it turned out on the example of Chukotka, the purchase of aircraft under state programs can be accompanied by a "corruption component" far and not always transparent. Thus, the acquisition of two DHC-6 for 1 billion rubles by the region's authorities in 2014 caused the criminal case, and according to the estimates of the FAS Russia, the damage from the anticompetitive transaction exceeded 300 million rubles. Note that the exchange differences have made significant adjustments to the cost of imported aircraft, and even leasing schemes with cost recovery from the federal budget are now unaffordable for many regions.
Blowed from the North
Of all the Far Eastern subjects, small aviation has the greatest importance for Yakutia, where about 270 thousand passengers are transported annually in local areas. As noted by the regional authorities, the seasonal transport zone is 91% of the republic, and 25 districts from 34 do not have reliable transport links with the center and nearby areas. Of 629 settlements of the republic 50% - sparsely populated, and 44% - hard to reach. The largest in the Far East airport network operates in the republic. It includes 33 Airport and 104 Landing Airplanes. Air transportation activities are carried out by Buryat Airlines, IrAero, ALROSA, Yakutia and Polar Airlines, the latter since the new year being merged into a group of companies. At the same time, it is Polar Airlines that serves more than 80% of the territory of Yakutia, including the Arctic.
In the republic there are two programs for subsidizing air transportation - on intra-district and inter-district routes. On them in 2016 year, respectively, 280 million and 111 million rubles were allocated. Domestic flights are also subsidized in the amount of 77% -67% of the ticket price, for 2017 year 376 million rubles were allocated from the state budget for carrying out socially significant transportation. At the same time, there is a need to increase the frequency of flights. So last year the head of the Ministry of Transport and Road Economy Semen Vinokurov, said that the number of flights should grow from 1422 more than 950 flights. Mainly due to arctic regions and hard-to-reach settlements.
According to the estimates of the Ministry of Transport and Roads of Yakutia, the republic needs to purchase 2025 new aircraft to service the Arctic zone before 28: 10 Pilatus aircraft, eight Bombardier Q-300 aircraft, ten Mi-8 helicopters. The basis of the small aircraft fleet today is made by helicopters Mi-8, An-2, An-3, An-24 and An-26 produced in the USSR. As noted by the republican authorities, by 2020 the wear of regional aircraft will become critical and domestic manufacturers have not started serial production of small-size aircraft. In addition, on the balance of the "Polar Airlines" are L-410UVP-E, Pilatus PC-6 and Diamond 40 Tundra. And while the airline does not expect to purchase new aircraft, preferring to repair the existing fleet because of the high cost of new equipment.
Let's add that in 2011, Polar Airlines announced a large-scale write-off of An-24, as an alternative to which Chinese analogues, Xian MA60, were considered. These planes were tested in Yakutia along with Fokker-50, ATR-42, DASH-8-200, SAAB-2000, and as the Polar Airlines directors stated then, it was the Chinese aircraft that most of all arranged the airline. But the Russian certificate this direct competitor to Russian An-24 has not received. Moreover, when in September, the head of Minsk Region, Alexander Galushka, signed at the Eastern Economic Forum with the Chinese aircraft builders represented by Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation and Jiangsu Baoli International Investment Company, a framework agreement involving the organization of MA60 assembly in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, this news is negative Responded Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin. According to him, the entry of Chinese aircraft into the Russian market in such a formulation is "directly contrary to the strategic line of the state". At the same time, today the high cost of foreign equipment is becoming an increasingly important deterrent for the renewal of the fleet.
Last year, the authorities of Yakutia appealed to the Ministry of Transport with a proposal to liberalize the field of small aircraft. As stated in a letter to the head of the Ministry of Transport, Maxim Sokolov, signed by the head of the State Assembly (Il Tumen) of Yakutia Alexander Zhirkov (a copy of the document at the disposal of Eastrussia), the current norms of air legislation "have signs of excessive regulation, do not contribute to the development of civil aviation business. "
These are the Air Code and the Federal Aviation Regulations Governing Commercial Air Transportation (FAP-246) and Aerial Works (FAP-249). In particular, these rules do not allow state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation to attract companies and individual entrepreneurs who own small airplanes and helicopters for the commercial transport of passengers, cargo, and mail in conditions where aviation is the only mode of transport. In general, the requirements of the legislation "do not contribute to the development of competition in the market of local air transport, the purpose of which, among other things, is to reduce the cost of air tickets and air services within the region."
The draft of the relevant changes was previously developed in the framework of the parliamentary association “Far East and Transbaikalia”, with the active participation of the Association of Small Aviation of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In particular, it was proposed to allow airmen to carry out emergency and search and rescue operations, monitor ice conditions, wild animals and domestic deer, small-batch cargo and mail traffic, as well as passenger traffic by aircraft with a passenger capacity of less than 20 people. From the Ministry of Transport received a response that the Ministry has prepared the appropriate changes. But to date, these changes are not approved and have not entered into force.
Experts note that it was the segment of small aircraft that proved to be the most unprotected and problematic in Russia. "The problems of air transport services in Russia are well known - it is the high cost of air tickets and fuel, the technical condition of airfields and landing areas, the aging of the fleet," - lists the chairman of the Association of Small Aviation of Yakutia (AMA RS (Y)) Ivan Lukin. According to him, an answer to the question "what to do" by the professional community is also found, and even a list of practical measures for resolving long-standing problems has been formed.
“The main task, above all, is the creation of the necessary infrastructure for small aircraft,” he says. This issue is particularly relevant in the North. For example, in Yakutia, the month of May-June, all types of transport links between settlements, excluding helicopter flights, cease. “Life stops for one simple reason - airfields and landing sites become muddled, not to mention winter roads,” says the head of the Association. Today, according to Ivan Lukin, this issue is being solved much less expensively, “new technologies are emerging, well-forgotten old methods of construction are being pulled out.” In addition, due to the short daylight hours, not to mention the polar nights in the Arctic, it is necessary to equip the landing sites with devices for “night start” of LED lamps.
"The question immediately arises, how much will construction cost? Preliminary calculations show that the landing pad designed to receive An-2 with two parking lots for airplanes, built from prefabricated airfield plates with thermal insulation from extruded polystyrene and equipment of a "night start" in one of the settlements of Yakutia will cost 60-62 million rubles. Of these, I ask you to pay attention, only transportation costs for the delivery of materials is 35 million rubles, "he said. However, this site will work at least 50 years.
Construction and maintenance of airfields are carried out by both subjects and federal state institutions, such as "Airport of the North". At the same time, the costs of modernization and maintenance are partly borne by the airlines themselves, who pay airport fees for each take-off landing. Annually, fees are increasing due to the increase in the cost of utilities, electricity, fuel, consumables, staff salaries. "As a result, air tickets are getting more expensive, the number of passengers is falling, the number of flights is decreasing and airport charges are being raised again. After all, the less often planes fly, the more the airports increase the prices for their services, "the expert says. The way out is seen in the zeroing of these fees. So, FKP "Airports of the North" in 2017 plans to receive 1,4 billion rubles of fees. "At the same time, 1% of the revenue side of Yakutia's budget in 2017 is 1,65 billion rubles. Zeroing airport charges will enable you to reduce the cost of air tickets at least by 20-25%. You can not look for commercial benefits in the work of northern airports. After all, no one comes to mind to declare the federal highway "Lena", "Vilyuy" and "Kolyma", "the head of the Association is sure to pay.
However, the Russian system for regulating small aircraft is largely superfluous and does not correspond to the recognized experience of other countries. So, for example, in Alaska there are no such payments as airport, air navigation and meteo-gathering, which in Russia are levied from airlines. "Airport charges are financed by the state budget, aeronautical fees are paid for by fees from foreign airlines flying over the US territory, weather information is received by the aircraft crews via the Internet, and most of the taxes paid by Russian companies are absent. Carriers are provided with interest-free loans for a long period of time, there are no special requirements of air legislation that make it difficult for airlines to create. There is a principle - one plane, and the pilot is a director, an accountant and a mechanic, "the head of the Association notes. Thus, the Alaska small airlines carry costs only for jet fuel, maintenance, spare parts, leasing payments and a "dry flying hour", which mainly includes salaries of flight, technical and administrative staff and other overhead costs of the airline. "If we assume that tomorrow we will create conditions for small aircraft, like those in Alaska, also introduce stringent restrictions on the composition and volume of costs of airlines included in the dry flight hour, we can safely talk about reducing avtaritafov to 40%," explains Ivan Lukin.
The economy dictates the need to increase the fleet and the frequency of flights, since the costs of the airline are directly dependent on the number of aircraft and flight, the Association notes. The more the aircraft flies, the more it brings profit, since the costs of leasing and maintenance are directly included in the air ticket and therefore they do not affect the financial result, as they are compensated by the revenues received. At the same time, the cost of a dry flying hour is constant and does not depend on the frequency of the flights.
That is why it is so important to purchase new, more economical equipment - and at affordable prices. But the airline, especially carrying out socially significant - and therefore low-profit transportation, is rarely able to immediately pay the entire cost of an airplane or helicopter. That is why leasing schemes have become widespread.
Moreover, it is on the reimbursement of leasing payments that airlines are allocated subsidies to the federal budget on the basis of government decree # 1212 from 30 December 2011. So, for example, for a new aircraft with the number of passengers from four to ten people, the size of the subsidy is 46,56 million rubles. The only condition for repaying the loan, the government of the Russian Federation puts the use of this aircraft for five years for commercial air transportation. After the expiry of this period, the loan is considered to be canceled.
The Small Aviation Association of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) proposed, in addition to the above resolution, to expand the list of aircraft available for lease and include vessels with a capacity of one to three passengers “This is extremely necessary for flights between settlements with a small number of residents. If we cite as an example the classic Alaska small aviation airline, then the list of its aircraft is Cessna-152 (one passenger), Cessna-182 (three passengers), Cessna -206 (five passengers), Cessna-208 (nine passengers), DHC- 6, Dornier-228, (19 passengers), Dornier-328; DHC-8, Fairchild Metro (30 passengers). The "Achilles' heel" of transfers in Alaska, as well as in our country, is the achievement of 65% of the commercial load of the aircraft, laid down in the air tariff. This drawback is eliminated by such a set of aircraft, depending on the number of tickets sold, the type of vessel that provides the maximum load is put on the route, ”the chairman of the Association explains.
However, according to him, the choice of DHC-6 for mass exploitation in the Far East is not very successful, “the main reason for the suspension at the time of production of this aircraft was the fact that 850% of 40 machines were disabled for various reasons, including disaster. One of the probable causes of a high accident rate is the large wingspan for this class of aircraft. “The designers of the aircraft to achieve the parameters of a short take-off and landing, in my opinion, neglected the above risks. According to pilots flying the DHC-6, this aircraft requires the pilot to be above average, which does not correspond to the aircraft for mass use in commercial flights, since not all small aircraft pilots are above average qualified, ”said Ivan Lukin. According to him, for replacing the super-popular An-2 and An-3 in the Soviet years, there is a good foreign analogue, the 9-12 local Cessna Grand Caravan, which has maintenance costs for maintenance, logistics of parts supply, engine and screw overhaul, and time-to-repair resource engines and "so much lower that it is even incorrect to compare them." The aircraft of this company constitute the backbone of the aircraft fleet of the airlines of Alaska and Canada.
“As my 25 experience of studying aircraft and small aircraft problems shows, the most promising for operation in Russia are the line of aircraft of the Cessna company. The pilots are trained on these planes by the St. Petersburg University of Civil Aviation, the Ulyanovsk Higher Flight School of Civil Aviation, the Buguruslanskoe LU GA, the Yakutsk LTU GA and others. Cessna has a spare parts warehouse in Moscow, Krasnoyarsk, service centers for maintenance in Moscow, Sankt Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk, Surgut and Krasnodar. A good choice is the ATP-42-600, if our airfields bring to mind and finalize the aircraft itself during the production operation. ATP-42 in 2015 year set a sort of record raid on a payroll unit, about 400 hours per month, which in itself is a very good indicator in the conditions of the North, ”the expert notes.
With regard to such problems as the high cost of imported technology, then the cost of buying new aircraft can be reduced by zeroing out the VAT and customs duties when purchasing small aircraft. In addition, it is necessary to reset the VAT and excise taxes on the aviation gasoline 100LL and B-91 / 115, which, as part of import substitution, began to be produced in the city of Ivanovo and the Leningrad region.
But the most important measure that aviators are waiting for is the "legalization" of private transportation by small aircraft. Today, the Air Code and federal aviation rules (FAPs) do not prohibit the possession of private aircraft and fly on them. But attempts to set up transportation of passengers, cargo and mail on these planes meet an insurmountable barrier. After all, the pilot and owner of the aircraft immediately becomes a "carrier" in the eyes of the federal government, and therefore must obtain an operator's certificate, create a large staff.
"A small aircraft will be able to deliver passengers, mail and cargo faster and cheaper than a large airline, only because, for example, for a PI or LLC a simplified taxation system operates, their tariffs may be cheaper than the tariffs of a large airline for 18% VAT. And in turn, because of the high tariffs of large airlines for the transportation of mail, they are prohibitive for the institutions and organizations of the Federal Postal Service of Russia, and these carriers themselves are not interested in these transportation because of their small volumes, "explains the head of the AMA of Yakutia.