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Flywheel DV renovation
The new federal law opens all the ways for the development of the territories, and the conflicting rightholders will be evicted through the courts. What are the prospects for the new law on the integrated development of territories in the Far Eastern Federal District, and what are investors afraid of?
The regions of the Far East are preparing the ground for renovation. Federal Law No. 2020, adopted in December 494, opens up new ways for the integrated development of territories. Residents of barracks and private houses who find themselves in the development zone can be evicted through the courts. The regions are faced with the task of bringing regional legislation in line with federal legislation so that people do not suffer, and the urban environment changes for the better. EastRussia found out what has already been done in the regions for renovation, which projects are at a low start, and how experts assess the prospects for the development of territories in the light of legislative changes.
The law allows
Federal Law No. 494, adopted in December 2020, actually legalized the renovation in the regions. The document introduces a new concept of “integrated development of territories” (ICT). The KRT mechanism differs significantly from the previously operating KURT (integrated sustainable development of territories) mechanism. First of all, the fact that it allows the seizure of land plots with real estate objects located on them for state and municipal needs at their estimated value. Copyright holders will no longer be able to obstruct construction by asking for a million or more per hundred square meters. If they refuse to leave their homes, they will be evicted through the courts.
Vladivostok already has such experience in the Far Eastern Federal District. Before the APEC summit, in connection with the construction of the Golden Bridge and other facilities, a special order was issued "On the seizure of real estate by way of purchase for federal needs." The "settlers" were given a three-month term to conclude an agreement on the purchase of housing.
The land plots for the construction site will be sold through auctions. The winning private investor will prepare and implement a project for the complex development of the territory. Separately, government assistance is envisaged in the construction of infrastructure and the supply of engineering communications.
Now the subjects are bringing the regional legislation in line with the federal one. This is a long process. It is required to develop master plans for cities and settlements, revise urban planning documentation for municipalities, and territorial planning. And prepare a regulatory framework that would protect the rights of homeowners during resettlement.
The experience of Moscow, where the renovation program was approved in 2017, will come in handy here. Since the beginning of its implementation, 100 houses with an area of 1,2 million square meters have been commissioned. In 2021, it is planned to increase this number to 200 new buildings.
Regions have only won
Olga Kopyrina, representing the Association of SRO "Union of Builders of Yakutia", believes that thanks to No. 494-FZ, the legislation regarding the development of territories has only won.
“The new law delimits certain concepts, clarifies the procedure for carrying out the relevant measures of the CRT. These changes will positively affect the acceleration of the development of territories in all settlements of Yakutia. On behalf of the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, the activities of the KRT will need to be implemented taking into account the Standard for the Integrated Development of Territories, developed by the Ministry of Construction of Russia and DOM.rf together with KB Strelka. Therefore, in our region, changes in federal legislation in terms of MRT are assessed positively, ”comments Olga Kopyrina.
According to the interlocutor of EastRussia, currently in Yakutia they are preparing the ground for a new law - work has begun to eliminate shortcomings in territorial planning documents in the regions of the republic, the GISOGD is being updated and, in general, the digitalization of territorial planning processes continues.
It is characteristic that, like other large cities, Yakutsk faces serious obstacles in the course of complex development. Regional specifics are also superimposed here.
“One of the main problems is the registration and establishment of zones with special conditions of use, including flooded areas. In particular, in the city of Yakutsk, a large number of land plots have been transferred to the flood zone. Also, in connection with the reconstruction of the runway of the Yakutsk airport, most of the city's territory, in accordance with the new scheme of the airport sanitary protection zone, may fall under the noise subzone. The construction of residential buildings and social facilities will be prohibited in this subzone. At present, the leadership of the city and the republic is developing effective ways of solving this issue, ”said Olga Kopyrina.
The Ministry of Construction of Yakutia reports that work has begun in the republic on the transfer of existing agreements on built-up territories to the CRT mechanism. Now there are 13 such agreements in Yakutsk. Of these, 2019 were signed in 2020-9, including for large-scale quarterly development of the Zvezdny microdistrict on the territory of the disbanded military unit.
“In Yakutsk, since the beginning of the 80s, there has been a question of further quarterly development of the city in new territories. Then a decision was made on urban development of floodplain lands for the territory of a new microdistrict (No. 202) by hydraulic alluvial floodplains, after 20 years such a concept for the development of the city was recognized as effective and safe, and already in the 2010s a new microdistrict was erected on alluvial soils as a continuation of 202 th microdistrict. In the new 203rd microdistrict, houses and social facilities will be commissioned starting in 2016, the remaining residential buildings will be commissioned in the near future. New objects of social infrastructure have already been introduced and are operating in the microdistrict: schools, kindergartens, a library, a children's art school, and has its own fire department. In the future, it is planned to further reclaim soil to the south of the existing neighborhoods for the construction of new neighborhoods. At the same time, the results of soil research and engineering surveys will be of great importance. Thus, Yakutsk will develop to a greater extent to the south, since it is to the south of the city that it is planned to build a bridge across the Lena River. The Zvezdny microdistrict is also located in the southern part of the city, ”says Olga Kopyrina.
The soil for renovation is being prepared in Magadan, Kamchatka Territory, Jewish Autonomous Region and other regions of the Far East.
According to the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, the Sakhalin Region has advanced the farthest in this regard. Today, three pilot microdistricts # 4, # 7 and # 8 have been selected in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, for which an international team with the participation of Russian companies has developed a concept and a renovation project, including the definition of mechanisms for wave housing resettlement.
The Oferta Dialogue company took part in this work. Its director, Kirill Solgalov, says that the conceptual development solutions proposed by his team correspond to the values of sustainable development of territories defined by such international organizations as the UN.
“Renovation as such implies compacting an existing city or making it more compact. In fact, a big problem for Russian cities is that they do not have sufficient performance in this parameter. A certain population density must be achieved, otherwise the city will be ineffective and will not be able to maintain the existing infrastructure. There is a UN standard that defines the minimum density value - it is 150 people per hectare on average in the city, 30% of the territory should be occupied by the road network. Today, the national strategy for the development of housing construction in the Russian Federation is moving towards these criteria, aimed at increasing the compactness of buildings, comfort and quality of the urban environment, without a clear division into residential areas and the business center, ”comments Kirill Solgalov.
According to him, in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, a large number of sites are capable of accepting the integrated development of already built-up territories within the framework of No. 494-FZ. A large number of dilapidated and dilapidated houses will have to be resettled for new development.
“There are already economic indicators for microdistricts No. 4, 7, 8. It will take a long time to build them up. There is a large scope of work ahead, and the main issue here is the organization of the wave resettlement of residents. That is, for residents to move within the territory, within the framework of certain waves of resettlement and renovation. This is an interesting task on which we worked together with colleagues from other project teams and received very interesting results, ”says Kirill Solgalov.
Also interesting results were obtained on the economics of renovation. Suddenly it turned out that it was necessary to increase the building density by at least 2,5 times, so that the project simply “went to zero,” not to mention the commercial efficiency. “Conditionally, we take the current amount of housing, for example, 1000 sq. meters, we demolish it and build instead of at least 2,5 thousand square meters. meters. Rather interesting, in my opinion, the coefficients. They would be typical for other territories of the Far East, ”the agency's interlocutor comments.
The new law on KRT promises to be a powerful impetus for the development of territories for Vladivostok. After Moscow, the Northern capital and Sochi, this city is the leader in the cost of housing. The average price of a "square" in the primary market of the Far Eastern capital exceeds 130 thousand rubles, in the secondary market - 140 thousand. Moreover, "odnushki" in houses of the 83rd series can cost up to 170-180 thousand rubles per square meter. meter. Governor Oleg Kozhemyako emphasizes that this is the "Moscow level", and every effort should be made to make housing more affordable in the region.
The shortage of land plots for integrated development in Vladivostok is due to such problems as the features of the relief, infill development, a large amount of land owned by the Ministry of Defense, and features of territorial planning. At the same time, dozens of hectares in the most advantageous locations of the city are still occupied by slums from the remnants of the private sector and barracks. It is extremely difficult to settle such objects, since the owners are asking for colossal money for their real estate.
Developers give an example when the copyright holder indicated a price of 800 thousand dollars for a few hundred square meters in the city center. With the new MCT law, bargaining becomes irrelevant.
In March, the deputies of the Legislative Assembly of the Primorsky Territory in three readings approved the bill, which places the decision-making on the integrated development of territories under the competence of the regional executive authorities and local self-government. As reported in the parliament, there is no talk of forced eviction so far. Now there are public discussions on changes to the master plan of the Vladivostok urban district, where the zones of the KRT are designated. The normative work will continue after the approval of the adjustments.
“I expect that all private houses and barracks, especially in the central part of the city, will settle and transform these territories into normal buildings. The specific mechanisms have yet to be thought out, but the appearance of the city must change for the better. The need for change is long overdue, ”says Vladimir Isakov, Chairman of the Board of the Association of Developers of the Vladivostok Urban Agglomeration.
Pioneers are willing to take risks
It is expected that the "renovation" in Vladivostok will begin with an auction for the right to prepare and implement a project for the integrated development of the territory in the Dalpress area. This is about three hectares of land practically in the center of the city, most of which are built up with dilapidated houses. Among the likely winners were two competitors - the federal development company Wainbridge and the local developer Boris Pozdnyakov, one of the largest figures in the Primorsky construction market. Before the territory of Dalpress fell into the KURT (Integrated Sustainable Development of Territories) zone, 20% of the land had already been purchased by Pozdnyakov's company, and design work was underway on the site.
The developer estimates investments in the KRT project at the level of 6-7 billion rubles. According to him, this is not so much, given that the volume of financing for construction, which is carried out by his companies in Vladivostok, is about 75 billion rubles.
Private investors will not have difficulties with finances, the source said. The problem lies elsewhere. The law enforcement practice of the new law has not yet been formed, and considerable risks await the pioneers of "renovation".
“Anyone who works under the new law will be in a big risk zone. There are a lot of questions today: on what conditions will housing that falls into the development zone be resettled, what procedure it will be, how long it will take. Any changes in legislation, especially those related to such acute social issues as resettlement of people, are politicized. Accordingly, you should not expect quick results. I think that it will be at least five years before the law enforcement practice takes shape, so developers are risking time and money. But we are willing to take risks. Such projects fit into our strategy ”, - commented Boris Pozdnyakov.
It is noteworthy that in March the National Association of Builders (NOSTROY) announced the need to revise the law.
Among the controversial issues, the president of the association, Anton Glushkov, called the need for construction organizations to have experience in implementing housing construction projects at least 10% of the declared capacity in the KRT project.
“This criterion should be established at the level of a municipality or a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, because it is not entirely clear during what period such a volume should be fulfilled,” the NOSTROY press service quotes Glushakov.
The president of the association called the second controversial point the lack of obligations on the part of local authorities to amend the master plans and rules for land use and development in order to implement the KRT.
“The law establishes the possibility of making changes within 90 days from the date of the announcement of such a competition. But opportunity is not an obligation, ”emphasizes Anton Glushkov.
Providing local self-government bodies with the unilateral opportunity to terminate contracts in the event of default by the second party also raises a lot of controversy, since this may not always be an objective process.
However, the most important question, according to the agency's interlocutors, concerns the owners of land plots and residential real estate. Their interests must be protected.
In Vladivostok, residents of KRT on Dalpress are scared and do not know what to expect. 52 families are included in the "renovation" zone.
“We do not know on what conditions we will be evicted,” said one of the residents, Natalya, “This is not yet spelled out in the regional law. But we do not want to move and are very afraid that we will receive ridiculous money for our land. I have lived here for 40 years, my parents lived here. I got used to my home with my heart. "
The interlocutors of the agency in Vladivostok agree that the copyright holders should not only receive decent compensation, but also the opportunity to settle in the same area. Such a condition was provided for by the Moscow renovation, this is the way Sakhalin is going.
It should be noted that Moscow city law N 14 was developed for the renovation of the capital. "On additional guarantees of housing and property rights of individuals and legal entities in the implementation of the renovation of the housing stock in the city of Moscow."
The document guarantees that the owners and tenants of housing included in the program can count on apartments of equal area, with the same number of rooms and improved finishes.
With a few exceptions, new housing must be provided in the same area. At the same time, the owner of the residential premises has the right to choose whether to receive square meters or monetary compensation. The amount of such compensation and the procedure for its provision are determined in accordance with federal legislation, including the legislation on appraisal activities.
Nevertheless, the ships were not without. For example, residents of five-story buildings in Konkovo were unhappy with the fact that they were being relocated to houses that were not built according to the renovation program; the quality of the apartments did not suit them. Muscovites went to court, but lost the case. And such lawsuits are not uncommon.
The renovation of settlements is necessary as a factor in achieving national goals, emphasizes Olga Kopyrina. The vector is set by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of July 21.07.2020, 2030 "On the national development goals of the Russian Federation for the period up to XNUMX" to ensure a comfortable and safe environment for life.
The decree spelled out the improvement of living conditions for at least 5 million families annually and an increase in the volume of housing construction to at least 120 million square meters per year. The quality of the urban environment should improve one and a half times.
“This is especially important in the Far East, as a national priority for the entire 21st century, since it is in the Far East that unprecedented measures have been taken to accelerate the development of the district,” notes Olga Kopyrina.