Irkutsk
Ulan-Ude

Blagoveshchensk
Chita
Yakutsk

Birobidzhan
Vladivostok
Khabarovsk

Magadan
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

Anadyr
Petropavlovsk-
Kamchatsky
Moscow

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Magadan: ordered to keep

Kolyma became one of the leaders in population decline in the Far East

One of the most northern regions of the Far East - the Magadan Region - continues to rapidly lose population. According to local authorities, every year the region leaves up to 40 thousand people, among them about one thousand people aged from 14 to 30 years. About why this is happening, and how the region, which has the glory of the golden heart of Russia, will struggle with the prevailing negative tendency - in the material EastRussia.

Magadan: ordered to keep
Photo: pixabay.com

Gold stopped motivating staff

The maximum population living in the region was recorded in 1987. Then she was 550 thousand people. This is more than twice the current figure. According to the authorities, the sharp rise in the value of gold was at one time one of the factors of industrialization in the Soviet Union. The region has long been safely existing thanks to the gold mining industry, but today even the high level of gold production cannot stop the outflow of the population. If the same trends continue, then in 30 years, the population of Kolyma will drop to 105 thousand.

In general, the most optimistic forecasts of Rosstat predict a population growth in the FEFD in 2025, including in Kolyma. However, the authorities of the region are concerned about what the composition of this population will be, and whether local residents will cease to leave the region if the socio-economic development of the region goes up.

“One of our main problems is the outflow of the able-bodied population and youth. At the same time, the number of labor migrants increases, due to which the number of resident population becomes back disproportionate to the number of people who arrived. There is an unequal replacement — well-capitalized personnel are leaving, mostly forever. People coming across are poorly trained, poorly fluent in Russian, with poor education and deplorable labor skills. They come to earn money, and then they leave for their countries anyway. Just imagine how much money you need to invest in these people so that they catch up with those who left. This is simply economically unprofitable, ”said the head of the region Sergey Nosov during the V All-Russian Conference“ The demographic development of the Far East ”.


Desire to leave

According to experts, in five years the average age of Kolyma residents will be 41 a year. In the absence of a resident population inflow with a low fertility rate, this will soon lead to an increase in the burden on the health care system, deterioration of the potential of the educational system in the region and, possibly, a shortage of local labor resources, which will be replaced by temporary labor migrants from other regions of Russia and the near abroad. .

One of the key points characteristic of the inhabitants of the north is delayed life syndrome. People are not focused on long-term residence on the territory and plan to eventually move to other parts of the country. The main reasons for this are reaching the retirement age, graduating from school and providing training opportunities in other regions of Russia. However, the quality of life is also greatly affected. This factor implies the high cost and poor quality of food, adverse climatic conditions, problems of transport logistics, underdevelopment of the health care system, education and leisure.

As a result of the collapse in population, the birth rate has also significantly decreased. All this is happening against the background of a high mortality rate - today it is twice as high as in the 1990 year. For this reason, the decline in the mortality rate has become a priority demographic task in Kolyma. To solve it by virtue of the rapid aging of the inhabitants of the region is very difficult.


Kolyma asks to the Arctic

Despite the fact that Kolyma lives in the conditions of the Far North, the region is not equal to the Arctic territories. Due to a combination of factors affecting the comfort of living in the region, the regional authorities are raising the question of including the Magadan region in the Arctic zone. Then the territory can receive a number of preferences - tax, investment, transport, tourism.

Since the economic factor is one of the main ones in retaining the population, we will have to work with it. The region intends to create new industries and restore the agricultural complex. In the Magadan Region, they have already paid attention to the fact that the processing of biological resources in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk is conducted outside the region and deprives the Kolyma economy of a large number of jobs.


What is the economy?

According to experts, the analysis of the population of the Arctic territories convincingly shows that in most cases the population density is a derivative of the intensity of extraction of raw materials and the efficiency of their development. In fact, only a significant excess of the per capita GRP over the national value makes it possible in the north to expand production, improve the well-being of the population, and also attract qualified personnel. In this task in Russia only two oil and gas regions cope - the Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Districts. In the first case, it is 68 thousand dollars per capita, in the second - 108 thousand dollars. Magadan Oblast has an internal regional product per capita of only 17 thousand dollars.



The leadership of the region does not plan to abandon the leadership in the extraction of alluvial gold in the country, but believes that in parallel it is necessary to develop the extraction of indigenous gold and other minerals. The problem is that geological exploration in Kolyma was not conducted for many years. Also, the development of the mineral resource complex is impossible without the development of the country's energy system. There are high tariffs in the region, there are unloaded energy capacities. In this regard, there is the prospect of assistance from Chukotka, where the development of one of the world's largest deposits of copper and gold, Baimsky, will soon begin. The development of the mining industry, in which gold is a passing mineral, and creates the prospect of a region without a grant in the near future.

“This is a question of serious discussions of what the population should be in the Far East and in the Magadan region. The number of the latter, in my opinion, should be necessary and sufficient to ensure the functioning of the region's economy, so that it will be dispensable and can plan its development for many years. What kind of economy a region is determined by what place a region occupies or will occupy in a country's geopolitical strategy. Without this, it is rather difficult to plan the development of the region, taking into account the arctic and subarctic features of our territory, ”SergeyNosov is sure.


The rate for youth

Realizing that the demographic issue needs to be addressed today, the authorities in the region have begun to rely on young people. Today, according to Tatyana Savchenko, deputy chairman of the government of the Magadan region, the region is actively creating new jobs for it.

“For each job we must have three places in the social environment. For example, now a pool is almost completed in Khasynsky district, respectively, specialists are needed there. A school is being built in the Olsky district, ”the official said.

Savchenko believes that engineering and mining should be popularized in the region. Today, according to her, there are excellent equipment in the technical colleges of the region, and the institutions themselves are ready to accept students from Kamchatka and Chukotka to study so that they can continue to work in Kolyma. One of the organizers of the conference, the Agency for the Development of Human Capital in the Far East, sees the consolidation of youth in the region through mining and bioresources processing.

“New jobs will be created on the basis of the Natalka gold deposit, after the modernization of the GOK on the basis of the Pavlik gold deposit, in the Magadansky greenhouse complex and in construction, as well as the operation of a fish processing complex in the city of Magadan. It is also important to set up work on training qualified personnel and their employment in enterprises of the Magadan region. For this, together with the regional government and enterprises, it is proposed to provide vocational guidance among schoolchildren, help students with the choice of profession, employment and adaptation in a new place, as well as with personnel assessment and development, ”said Sergey Hovrat, agency director, EastRussia.

In the meantime, with employment in the region is difficult. According to VTsIOM studies, 64% of respondents aged 18-24 of the year and 75% of those aged 25-34 of the year said it was difficult to find work in the Magadan Region. 20% educated in the Magadan region cannot be employed for a year after graduation. Among the main reasons for leaving, which the youth calls, are the lack of opportunities for employment and career growth, dissatisfaction with the level of wages, the lack of opportunities for self-realization and the desire for change in life.