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Lie down on the stove, do not dry the bricks
How in the Far East solve the problem of high cost of building materials
One of the main problems of the construction industry in the Far East is expensive construction materials, most of which have to be imported from other regions. Because of the large "transport shoulder" of the price, for example, the brick grows threefold to four times, and in recent years several large brick plants have been launched or announced in the region. EastRussia figured out who in the Far East bricks are asking and who gets it.
“We go to the fields, but we ourselves have been doing nothing with this wealth for years,” says Zoya Yadreeva, General Director of Vozrozhdenie. Vozrozhdenie is launching a project to build a brick factory in the Namsky ulus of Yakutia, - according to Mrs. Yadreeva herself, it will be the only one actually working in the republic. In Yakutia, the volume of housing construction has doubled over the past 10 years, and given the harsh climate, there is virtually no alternative to brick.
According to the investor's plans, the plant will start operating in the summer - fall of 2019 (equipment is being supplied now), and will reach full capacity in 2023. The planned annual capacity is 30 million pieces of bricks of four types, with an emphasis on the production of ceramic bricks. The project is included in the state program "Social and economic development of the Far East and the Baikal region", which, in particular, gives the right to provide soft loans. The investments are estimated at 1,1 billion rubles. Vozrozhdenie has already invested 200 million rubles. and plans to give work in the new production to 100 residents of the Namsky ulus, and in related industries - another 200. It would seem that the project is necessary. But in reality this story turns out to be a story of overcoming.
According to Zoya Yadreeva, plans to build a brick factory appeared as early as 2007. Then the company "Vozrozhdenie" took in the development of licensed areas of the Sannikovskoye clay deposit located on the territory of Namsky ulus. Numerous studies have confirmed the high quality of raw materials.
- We have no factories in Yakutia that would produce building materials, only cement. For construction, concrete is mainly used. But in an area where winter is nine months, this is a bad option, says Zoya Yadreeva. - Brick is another matter: it is suitable for both individual houses and multi-storey construction. But here's the thing - there is clay under our feet, and for 10 years I've been trying to get things off the ground.
The Vozrozhdenie company at its own expense prepared a technical project for loams, itself sent the clay to factory tests, which showed that with certain additives four types of bricks can be made from it. A lot of time and money was spent on various kinds of approvals: the territory of the field used to belong to the Ministry of Defense, and it took four years to complete the documents necessary for the work. Various bureaucratic issues had to be settled with other departments. “There is clay below the deposit, and a forest above. The one on the left is under the jurisdiction of Roskomgeologia, and the one on the right is controlled by the forestry department. This means that both justifications and special agreements are needed for all parties. And this is also time and money, "notes Zoya Yadreeva.
So if the authorities, referring to the project, talk about "investments from the investor", in the company "Vozrozhdenie" - so far only about wasted money.
- Actually the development of the deposit, expertise, analyzes of clay, technical justification, preparation of other documents - we did all this at our own expense. Moreover, some procedures had to be repeated from year to year. We are talking about tens of millions of rubles, - says Zoya Yadreeva. “We also found partners, the Technoceramics company, which will supply us with equipment and teach our specialists to work on it. At the same time, when we decided to participate in the all-Russian competition "Regions - Sustainable Development" with our project, the republican Ministry of Construction refused to accept the documents for unknown reasons. I myself called the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, they told me: "Of course, take part, what are the problems?" We won the competition. Actually, after that it became possible to talk about the start of the project.
Now, the partners of Vozrozhdenie, the company Technoceramics, are already importing equipment for the future plant. A tripartite investment agreement was signed between Sberbank, the government of Yakutia and the company. In short, it is clear that the project will take place.
- We already understand that everything will work out. But it's a shame that so much effort has been wasted. We could have been producing high-quality inexpensive bricks for several years and paying taxes to the republican budget, ”says Zoya Yadreeva.
WHY SHOULD FEED OTHER REGIONS
The interlocutors of EastRussia are unanimous in their opinions: the main problem for the Far East is the huge and unjustified costs of transporting bricks. But you can do without them.
“For example, facing bricks in Belogorsk cost from 30 rubles apiece,” says Evgeny Misnik, General Director of the Krepost company. The company at the beginning of this year became a resident of the TOR "Belogorsk" with a project for the production of up to 600 thousand pieces of Lego facing bricks per year. - And when we start production, we want to sell our products for a maximum of 20. Besides, only specialists can lay ordinary facing bricks, and even unprepared people can build a house up to two floors out of Lego bricks on their own. So consider how much the cost of materials and construction itself is reduced.
The launch of production of the company "Fortress" is scheduled for the fall of this year.
Another Far Eastern brick project - a resident of the Free Port of Vanino (part of the Free Port of Vladivostok), the Tokinsky Brick Factory - is already working. The production of ordinary bricks has already been launched - when it reaches full capacity, it will be 5 million pieces per year. The next stage is the production of facing bricks and hollow blocks.
According to the director of the company Vadim Moskvichev, the investment project will be implemented ahead of schedule by almost a year: instead of the end of 2019 - in the fourth quarter of 2018. Moskvichev is sure that the implementation of projects similar to the one conducted by the Tokinsky brick factory can radically change the situation on the construction market and in the economy of the Far Eastern regions in general.
- The cost of producing bricks, for example, M100 - 5-6 rubles per piece. And when he gets to the construction site in Vanino, it will cost 22 rubles. Facing bricks are even more expensive. All this is due to transportation costs, - says Vadim Moskvichev. - And although in our Khabarovsk Territory brick is not produced at all, it is now used everywhere, both in construction and in facing, even for economy-class housing. In other regions, prices are several times lower. For example, the Krasnoyarsk Territory has its own large brick factory, plus the cost of electricity there is significantly lower than in the Far East, and its costs occupy a significant share in total costs.
Vadim Moskvichev on a concrete example explains what the issue of local products to builders and consumers can give. The company itself was engaged in the construction of multi-apartment houses in Vanino. Its last object is 40-apartment five-storey house on the social program "Affordable housing for young families".
- The piece of ordinary brick cost us 22 ruble. This house requires about 500 thousand pieces. The total cost of the brick, it turns out, is about 11 million rubles. If now we were building from our brick for 5 rubles per piece, then we would save 17 rubles each. Throughout the house, the savings would be 8,5 million, "says Vadim Moskvichev. "And this is an ordinary brick!" If we talk about facing, now very expensive panels like Kraspan are brought from Krasnoyarsk to the Khabarovsk Territory. Among other things, their installation requires additional qualifications from the workers, which also adds to the costs. And the presence of localized production of available building materials will at least freeze the cost per square meter.
Average market cost per square meter of new housing:
Krasnoyarsk - 52 thousand rubles (population - 1,1 million people, average salary in the region - about 42 thousand rubles),
Khabarovsk - 71 thousand rubles (population - 618 thousand people, average salary - 44 thousand rubles),
Vladivostok - about 92 thousand rubles (population - 606 thousand people, average salary - about 53 thousand rubles),
Blagoveshchensk - 52 thousand rubles (population - 225 thousand people, average salary - 39 thousand rubles).
The entrepreneur is sure that when building in the region capacities for the production of building materials, housing if not cheaper, then at least it will not go up. Now in such remote, but actively developing territories, as Vanino, the high cost of materials strongly hits the developer's pocket: the cost of a square meter of housing is approaching the cost per square meter in Khabarovsk.
- Delivery eats everything. The same is in other cities of the region. And even if the brick produced here, in Vanino, reaches, for example, Komsomolsk-on-Amur with a price of 15 rubles apiece, this will already improve the situation compared to the current one, - Vadim Moskvichev is sure.
The main trend in the Far East should be a low-rise construction of local materials, he continues. But here the situation is exactly the same as with multi-apartment buildings, only the future owner of housing acts as the construction investor. He will calculate what will cost the construction of a house from 30-40 thousand bricks for 22 rubles per piece, and, perhaps, change his mind.
- Meanwhile, such things as the development of local production of building materials should be subsidized, helping developers with technical conditions, benefits for mortgage lending. Ultimately, this would give an incentive for the development of the regional economy as a whole, - says Vadim Moskvichev. - In the meantime, we are feeding producers from the Krasnoyarsk Territory. I am not a supporter of protectionism, but if we ourselves can produce products, create jobs and pay taxes here, why don't we?