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Who is eating Kamchatka fish?
Which water bioresources and where exactly does it export abroad? Kamchatsky Krai
Kamchatka has been and remains the largest producer of fish and other sea-related products in the Far East, and therefore inevitably is one of the main exporters of aquatic biological resources abroad. The region traditionally saturates not only the domestic market with white and red fish, but also satisfies part of the needs of its Asian neighbors. However, export from Kamchatka consists not only of biological resources, and the markets for the latter are constantly expanding.
More than 360 species of ichthyofauna live in the sea area of Kamchatka and its rivers. In the process of industrial and other types of fishing, five species of Pacific salmon and more than 30 species of marine objects are caught, of which 14 are marine fish. The main objects of the fishery are pollock, cod, herring, flounder, halibuts, sea bass, greenlap, Pacific salmon, crabs, squid. In the waters of the Kamchatka rivers and adjacent seas, about 2 million tons of fish are caught annually (including 150–250 thousand tons of salmon), up to 20 thousand tons of crab.
The fishing industry of Kamchatka forms from one third to half of the industry in the entire Far East. According to Rosrybolovstvo, in 2016, Far Eastern fishermen (FEFD) harvested almost 3,12 million tons of marine biological resources. The catch of pollock in the Far East amounted to 1,74 million tonnes, herring - 398,9 thousand tonnes, cod - 87,7 thousand tonnes, crabs - 57 thousand tonnes. The Kamchatka Krai fishery producers extract about 1 million tonnes of aquatic biological resources per year ( in 2016 - 1,06 million tons), of which about 85% of catches are in the adjacent seas and Kamchatka rivers. The total catch in Russia, according to preliminary data, is 4,75 million tons.
In the Kamchatka Territory there are more than 500 enterprises engaged in fishery activities with a year-round or seasonal production cycle, about 220 of which catch aquatic biological resources.
The largest of them are PJSC “Okeanrybflot”, production cooperative “Kolkhoz im. V. I. Lenin ”, LLC Pollux, LLC Vityaz-Avto.
It should be noted that the fish processing enterprises of the Kamchatka Territory are among the most modern in Russia. For the production of high-quality export products, advanced technologies are used, borrowed from the West. In particular, the products under the Maridel brand of the Vityaz-Auto company were initially supplied exclusively for export - to South Korea and Japan, but practically did not enter the domestic market.
The region's mining fleet numbers more than 650 large, medium and low tonnage vessels. More than 190 fish processing plants with a year-round or seasonal production cycle have been built and operate in the region, of which 17 produce canned fish. The total daily capacity of the factories is more than 12 thousand tons of frozen products, 1200 tubes of canned food (tubes - thousand conditional cans. - Approx. ed.).
According to the structure of exports of the Bank of Russia from the Kamchatka Krai, statistics as a whole are consistent with data on total catches. The bulk of exports for the past year was frozen raw fish - 217,7 thousand tons of these products were exported with a total cost of just over 400 million dollars.
The leader in terms of export volumes in this category is pollock (151 thousand tons for $ 143,5 million), the second position is for salmon (32,8 thousand tons for 127,2 million), the third - for cod (12,3 thousand tons by almost 37 million). Red fish are exported mainly sockeye salmon (about 70%) and pink salmon (about 25%). The main consumer of salmonids is Japan (more than 80% of Kamchatka red fish were delivered there last year).
Last year, 9,7 thousand tons of fish liver, caviar and milk were exported outside the peninsula - for 62 million dollars, 79,6 million of export proceeds were given by the Kamchatka crab. Low-processed products passing through customs declarations under the item “fish fillets and other fish meat (including minced meat), fresh, chilled or frozen” brought Kamchatka another $ 34,7 million - about 14,9 thousand tons were sold abroad Fishmeal can be attributed to the same category - about 17,12 thousand tons were exported from Kamchatka last year for a total of $ 17,85 million.
The routes of aquatic biological resources from Kamchatka are logical - the main consumers are the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Kamchatka seafood for $ 230,5 million in 2016 was consumed by South Korea, by 163,7 million - by China, by 114 million - by Japan, by 1,6 million - by Vietnam, by 1 million - by the USA, by 906 thousand - Thailand, products for 193 thousand dollars - Indonesia. At the same time, aquatic biological resources of the Kamchatka Territory were also exported to the Netherlands (by 2,4 million dollars), Germany (1 million dollars), Great Britain (243,7 thousand dollars) and even France (155 thousand dollars). ... The supply of fish and seafood to the Netherlands and the UK did not begin until 2016.
All other items of Kamchatka's exports for 2016 did not exceed 10% of the value of export. Of these, two thirds are raw materials for metallurgy: 28 thousand tonnes of ferrous scrap (5 mln.) And 133,7 thousand tonnes of nickel concentrate (27,75 mln. USD).
At the end of last year, non-resource non-energy exports from the Kamchatka Territory amounted to 93,6% of the total - this is $ 530 million. Non-raw energy exports are another 0,4%. The export of raw materials from Kamchatka last year amounted to about $ 30 million, or 6%. At the same time, the share of raw materials exports from the subject over the past four years has been gradually growing: in 2013 it was only 1,7% (and the share of non-resource non-energy exports - 97,85%), in 2014 - 1,74%, in 2015 - already 2,99%. At the same time, the share of Kamchatka in all-Russian exports is growing: since 2014, when it was 0,11%, the indicator increased to 0,2% at the end of 2016.
In general, the largest importing countries of products from Kamchatka in 2016 were the Republic of Korea ($ 243,52 million - 42,7%), China (203,14 million - 35,6%) and Japan (114,62 million - 20,1%). The Netherlands (5 million - 2,41%) and Vietnam (0,42 million - 1,62%) round out the top 0,28 importers. The value of exports to South Korea increased by $ 17,5 million over the year. The main export items: frozen fish - 50,8%, crustaceans - 30,2%, fish fillets and other fish meat - 13,3% of the export value. Exports to China fell by 19,4 million (8,7%). The main export items are: frozen fish - 80,5%, nickel ores and concentrates - 13,7%, flour from meat, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs - 5,5%. Exports to Japan increased in 2016 by 11,4 million (11,1%). The main export items are frozen fish - 94,4%, crustaceans - 4,7%.
Vladimir Ilyukhin, Governor of the Kamchatka Territory:
- The main part of Kamchatka export is traditionally fish and seafood. Their share in the total volume of foreign trade reaches 90%. Here the partners of Kamchatka, due to the geographical location of the peninsula, are the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. These are the Republic of Korea, China, Japan. At the same time, in 2016 the region also sent goods to the Netherlands, Vietnam and the USA.
For the most part, low-grade products are exported. However, now we are focusing on the development of production capacities. Including using the mechanisms of the territory of advanced development and the Free Port of Vladivostok. The first steps in this direction have already been made. So, within the framework of the TOP, a large project involving investments from the Republic of Korea is now being implemented by the company 415 City. In Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, a modern fish processing plant and a factory for the production of tin cans are being built. The company plans to supply the products both to the domestic market and to export.
In addition, a project to create a transport and logistics center is being implemented in the regional center under the Free Port regime. The initiator is the Seroglazka Terminal company, which actively cooperates with the world leader in the field of container transportation - the Danish company Maersk Line. The project provides for the creation of a terminal for integrated services for sea vessels. It will ensure the transshipment of Kamchatka fish products for further shipment to the Russian market, as well as direct export deliveries of refrigerated containers to ports in Asia, Europe, and the United States, without calling other ports of the Far East.
If we talk about other components of Kamchatka's exports, we also send abroad nickel concentrate and ferrous scrap. In the future, it is planned to supply coal from the Krutogorovskoye deposit in Kamchatka. The Indian company Tata Power is planning to implement this project on the peninsula.
I would also like to note our cooperation with the Russian Export Center, which provides financial and non-financial support to exporters. REC representatives visited the peninsula last year and met with our entrepreneurs. Business has expressed interest in this cooperation. In addition, the Government of the Kamchatka Territory is now also working to create mechanisms to support exporters at the regional level. I am sure that, together, such assistance will make it easier for our entrepreneurs to do business.
Published in the journal "Russian exporter"