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Concessions went on specializations
The rating of the partnership between business and government was headed by Priamurye and Yakutia
Five Far Eastern subjects of the Russian Federation have risen sharply in the lines of the all-Russian annual rating "Level of Public-Private Partnership Development in the Subjects of the Russian Federation" (PPP rating). The presentation of the last in 2016 year was held during the infrastructure congress "Russian Week of PPP", held 28-31 in Moscow in March. What do the positions of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the rating mean, EastRussia understood.
Following the 2016 results, the Khabarovsk Territory took 11 a place in the PPP rating, having risen immediately to 10 points compared to last year’s results and typed on the 100-point scale 63,7 points. This is an 33,4 point more than last year. For comparison, Moscow, Moscow and Samara regions located in the top three lines scored 90,1, 82,7, 82,7 points, respectively.
With a relatively small margin from the Khabarovsk Territory is the Amur region - 17 line or 30,8 points: rose over the year from 39 places and added 30,8 points.
The third best indicator among the Far Eastern subjects of the Russian Federation in the Republic of Sakha-Yakutia is 52,1 points against last year’s 39,6. However, due to the more mass upward movement of other Russian regions, Yakutia fell over the year from 15 to 24 in the PPP rating.
Magadan region has risen from 78 to 47 place (29,5 points against 6 at the end of 2015 of the year). Primorsky Krai - from 74 to 48 place (29,4 points against 9). Chukotka Autonomous Region - from 83 to 64 location (20,8 vs. 1,8).
Other Far Eastern subjects of the Russian Federation - Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Jewish autonomous regions - showed negative dynamics in the rating of PPP, dropped from 51 to 59, from 45 to 69, from 64 to 73 lines, respectively.
Let's remind, the mechanism of state-private partnership assumes attraction by state and municipal authorities of business opportunities for realization of infrastructural projects of high social importance, but with a long financial return. We are talking about private investments in the construction, repair and modernization of transport system facilities, housing and communal services, health care, education, etc. Such investments, according to the government, are simply necessary in conditions when the possibilities of budget financing of infrastructure are inexorably decreasing (by 10% a year over the past five years).
In Russia, the PPP mechanism is governed by two laws - No.115-FZ "On concession agreements" and No.224-FZ "On public-private partnership, municipal-private partnership in the Russian Federation and amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation". The cardinal difference between them is that according to the first law the possibility of transferring ownership rights to the objects of the agreement from the public partner to the private one is excluded. And the second possibility is allowed. The most common form of PPP is a concession - an agreement concluded by the authorities with a private company about transferring it into operation on specified terms certain land plots or objects with the right to operate them for a certain period. At the same time, the government (public partner) can compensate the business (private partner or concessionaire) through various schemes by means of various schemes, and the latter, in turn, can pay it a certain fee for using the provided objects.
For example, the scandalous reputation of a project for organizing an automated system for charging truckers in Russia, Platon, works like this: the state represented by Rosavtodor has entered into a concession agreement with the private company RT-Invest Transport Systems (RTIT). Under the terms of the latter, RTITS builds the Plato infrastructure at its own expense, uses it for 13 years (charges fees for truckers), and then transfers the system to the state. The company transfers the collected money to the budget (according to the plan - 1 trillion rubles for 13 years or about 77 billion per year). For this, the state pays to its concessionaire at the expense of the budget a remuneration of more than 10 billion rubles a year. Not all representatives of the Russian political elite are encouraged by such cooperation between business and government. For example, Yury Boldyrev, one of the founders of the Yabloko party, a well-known Russian economist and politician, believes that the transfer of state functions to commercial companies indicates its weakness, inherently corrupt and represents additional hidden taxation of the population.
Where are the hospitals, where are the roads
- The degree of deterioration of all infrastructure in the Far East is much higher than in Central Russia, the same applies to the level of energy and transport costs, the deficit of regional and municipal budgets. Therefore, PPP projects for this region are particularly relevant. It is noteworthy that each Far Eastern subject of the Russian Federation over the past few years has its own specifics in the part of PPPs. Thus, the Amur region is leading in the region in terms of the number of agreements between municipal authorities and business for the repair of housing and communal services. In Khabarovsk and Primorye, PPP projects are related to the restoration of regional and local road infrastructure. In Yakutia, business is being built mainly for the construction of social facilities - kindergartens, schools, hospitals, "said Maxim Tkachenko, executive director of the PPP Development Center, one of the main organizers and participants of the infrastructure congress" The Russian Week of PPP ", told EastRussia.
According to him, the PPP mechanism should not be considered as a panacea for all infrastructure problems. And the fact that the PPP rating has dropped by the end of the year somewhere or stably stays at a low level does not necessarily mean that the regional authorities do not work well. Simply, they can use other ways to involve private business in the process of creating a more favorable social environment. These can be mechanisms for government procurement, auctions, agreements on production sharing or the same advanced development territories (TOR) actively created in recent years in the Far East. In the latter case, in contrast to PPP, it is not a private investor that solves the social tasks facing the authorities, but on the contrary, the authorities give preferences to the business for solving its production tasks. But the output implies an increase in output, the emergence of new jobs, profit growth, tax revenues. And all this should inevitably be converted into a comprehensive improvement of the social environment.
Almost all participants of the congress recognized during the panel discussions: business as a whole is not against cooperation with the authorities at all levels, but it is sometimes frightened off by excessive bureaucratization of the Russian state machine, which calls into question the final profitability of these or those joint projects. To remedy this problem, a non-profit organization, the Association for the Development of PPPs in Russia, was established on a voluntary basis a few years ago. And one of its main communication platforms - to establish an effective dialogue between business and government - was the Russian Week of PPP congress. Annually more than 1500 people take part in this forum, among them: representatives of federal and regional authorities, heads of private companies, financial institutions, leading Russian and foreign experts in the field of PPP.