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"Komsomolsk-on-Amur, we just started to wake up, and we need to make the city of the future out of it"
Deputy Prime Minister of Khabarovsk government Dmitry Volkov on the first results of the implementation of the long-term plan
In November of the year 2016 in the government of the Khabarovsk Territory appeared the post of deputy chairman for integrated development of Komsomolsk-on-Amur - Dmitry Volkov was appointed to it. Mr. Volkov became a responsible project manager, coordinating the work on the implementation of the city's long-term development plan, which is led by many structures. About what has already been done within the framework of the plan for the last year and a half, and most importantly, what is to be done, he told specifically for the release of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Invest + to the third Eastern Economic Forum.
- It can even be visually displayed, which we, in fact, are doing. The Governor of the Khabarovsk Territory, Vyacheslav Shport, at a staff meeting weekly hears a report on a long-term plan. The essence of the report can be presented graphically in just one slide. Any construction object goes through several stages: preparation for design, design, holding a tender for construction, construction itself and commissioning. Visually, these are the bars of the diagram. So far, we have taken into account not all objects, but those whose financing falls on the budget cycle plus one year, that is, for a perspective that can already be clearly imagined. These are 52 objects for 52,3 billion rubles. And, for example, as of August 1, the situation looked like this. Four facilities are at the pre-design stage, 18 are at the design stage, 13 are in preparation, 16 are under construction, and one is being put into operation. The logic is that the bars flow to the right as the objects go through the stages. And all construction projects must go through these stages, and this is time, effort and decisions.
- In other words, all those who fulfill the long-term plan, "push the bars." Who is the most important in this?
- The main one in the Khabarovsk Territory is our governor. It is he who determines the development strategy in line with the tasks set by the president and the government, including for Komsomolsk-on-Amur. If the question is directly about the plan, then it is executed by a built-in control system. There is a project manager - that's me. There are functional deputy chairmen of the government of the Khabarovsk Territory who are responsible for specific activities of the plan - there are 10 of them. I coordinate the activities of deputy chairmen, 17 federal executive bodies, 15 state-owned companies and four municipalities - the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Komsomolsk, Solnechny and Amur districts. I am, in general, a person "in the shadows".
- And do not personally answer for any point of the plan?
- If the long-term plan is not fulfilled, the skin is removed from me. Or do not take it off - if it's done. And personally, I am responsible for those objects, which are fixed by individual assignments. For example, for the Engineering School. But this does not mean that the responsibility for the school is removed from the supervising sphere of culture and education of deputy chairman Alexander Fedosov - we share this responsibility.
- In addition to the facilities that need to be built, a long-term plan provides for activities. With their performance like?
- It is not difficult to determine how the work is progressing. The plane did not fly from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to Vladivostok - it flew. There was no load at the Amur Shipyard - orders appeared. The Amurmetall plant did not work - the plant was withdrawn from bankruptcy, the new owner, the regional authorities and the Ministry of Industry and Trade are discussing how to develop it further.
"Have you done a lot already?"
- 11 activities from 33, laid down in the plan, are considered completed, 22 - in the process. But even where we ticked off, where they are all credited, the work must continue. For example, there is a plan item: "development of a concept for the development of an agro-industrial cluster." The concept has been developed. Three enterprises, which should form the basis of the cluster, entered the territory of advanced development. But is that all? There are a lot of tasks, and the final one is to increase the degree of provision of the city with its own food products: now it is measured in percent, and we want tens of percent.
- Do you need to cut the first ribbons on objects by some date, for example, the third Eastern Economic Forum?
- No. Moreover, I am categorically against cutting ribbons to memorable dates. We need to work on schedule, proceed primarily from the production need.
- Good. And if so happens that Komsomolsk-on-Amur will want to show after the forum to President Vladimir Putin, where will they take him to?
- A city is not a set of objects of a long-term plan, it is incommensurably larger. So, in my opinion, we need to approach the issue more broadly: what can Komsomolsk-on-Amur be proud of, what it can show as its achievements. The first is, of course, factories. This is the basis of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The second thing that can already be shown is the public spaces being formed. None of them has yet been fully formed, but a start has been made, and we are proud of it. For example, the park near the hotel "Amur" - they began to improve it for the 85th anniversary of the city, and not within the framework of a long-term plan. Of the objects of the plan, the closest completion will be the drama theater. We can also show the changes that are taking place on the embankment: screens have been installed, landscaping elements have been made, the river station has been put in order. Although this is not yet connected with the large reconstruction project - it is only put up for competition.
- The object "I love Komsomolsk," which now all are photographed - from the same series?
- Yes, but here I would make one addition. This sign is an exact copy from the sign "I love Moscow". The idea of the pedestrian street, which was discussed for a long time, resulted in the brand "Komsomolsky Arbat". In the park, "Cupid" has an idea to create an art object - sitting on a bench of a man and a woman, and for them the image of the Master and Margarita is offered - although this is purely a Moscow story. In the Leninsky district there is a microdistrict with the name "Paris", and so on. In general, many parts of Komsomolsk-on-Amur are connected with other cities. But this pattern, it seems to me, is time to change. It is clear that the city was formed, like all the Far Eastern cities, from visiting people with their brought myths. With this you need to finish. The city should tell its stories, which it has enough. And "Arbat" in Komsomolsk-on-Amur must be called a proper name, and "Masters and Margarita" - to look for their own.
- Do something for the benefit of the city beyond the long-term plan you need?
- This is a correct statement of the question. As the plan is being implemented, we see that even if we fulfill it all, it will not yet ensure a qualitative leap in the development of the city. We will certainly improve some aspects of life. But the fundamental changes, apparently, only a long-term plan will not. This means that as we perform, we must constantly supplement our tasks. Do not revise the government's decree, although it will need some adjustments. And go beyond the plan.
- What exactly?
- I would single out barriers and opportunities. Barriers that hamper business development need to be eliminated, and here three factors are paramount. First, it is obvious that the Komsomolsk-on-Amur business and the three adjacent areas, which were supposed to exist in the Soviet times, can be formed in the Komsomolsk-Amursk-Solnechny metropolitan area, a preferential regime similar to the Freeport of Vladivostok is needed. The SST regime and the regime of the territories of advanced social and economic development must be combined so that entrepreneurs have the working conditions no worse than in Vladivostok or Khabarovsk. Secondly, it is necessary to optimize the "northern": premiums, odds and benefits that have remained since the times of the USSR, but now instead of the state should be provided by employers. The question is not about cancellation, but about optimization - for business this is a huge burden, and he still tries to avoid it in every way. The third important element is the creation of accessibility by all four modes of transport: road, rail, air and water.
- "Opportunities" Komsomolsk-on-Amur, as you called them, will help somehow eliminate the "barriers"?
- Now we carefully analyze them. As an example - the prospects for the development of small general aviation, and it's not just about aircraft production, but also about the development of flights in general. It can develop specifically Komsomolsk-on-Amur and all northern populated areas within the radius of accessibility of flight on a light-engine aircraft. The cost price of a trip to Komsomolsk-on-Amur-Khabarovsk on a comfortable SUV and flight on a small plane is the same. The aerodrome network is both there and here. What's stopping you? Getting the right to fly is much more complicated than a car. And to use the plane as a commercial taxi by law is simply impossible. If you promote these ideas in addition to the long-term plan - the effectiveness will grow significantly.
- Everything that you have listed is a question of changes in federal legislation and large funds. Power enough?
- Partially all this is provided for by the long-term plan. And, in our opinion, it will be very difficult to achieve a leap in the development of Komsomolsk-on-Amur without solving these problems. Not everything here is measured in billions. Equipping courtyards and public spaces, for example, is not so expensive. United Russia is funding a yard improvement program. It can be seen: there was a yard, there were holes. And the absence of lawns, benches, ballot boxes, ugly entrances - all this looked harmonious. As soon as good curbs and asphalt were laid, paths and a playground were made, it became clear: you need to take care of the lawns, break up a flower garden, and put up a bench. People themselves begin to get involved, psychology is changing. It's like a boiling process: if the first bubble does not form, the water will not boil. Likewise, Komsomolsk-on-Amur needs to pass a certain condensation point. All of this may not be possible in the long-term development plan of the city. But this is in his spirit.
- Remove the barriers, take advantage of opportunities - and the city will make a breakthrough in the future?
- Of course, there is a risk that there is not. It is enough to analyze the history: our city development program is already, according to my calculations, the seventh. They all followed one pattern. There was a state task, large funds were allocated for it. It turned out, it would seem, a jerk. The last such was in 1983-1990 years, when the city developed at a frantic pace. We are now ideologically going along a similar path, based on budget investments. But will we repeat the success of 1983? Hardly. There, the scale of investment was much larger than now. At the moment, the annual turnover of the city's enterprises - about 150 billion rubles, on a long-term plan - is invested by 5-10 billion rubles. in year. It's a lot, but it's not a shaft in which you can choke. At the same time, how did the 1983 program end? Most of the created objects showed their low viability. Then, for example, giant food industry enterprises were built, but they could not stand the test of the market. Need another ideology.
- And what else can you do with the city, if you do not give him even more money?
- The city needs to wake up. To awaken citizens, business. This has already begun. I gave an example with the improvement of yards, just about this story: you need to start doing something with your hands. The long-term plan creates points of growth. For example, it strengthens the embankment at the expense of the budget. But the rest should be private, without this a full-fledged embankment will not work: there will be a beach. This must be done step by step.
"But is this a leap?"
- No. But if we succeed now, then tomorrow we need to raise the question of the special status of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. One of the ideas being discussed is that the digital economy, that is, information technology, has been rapidly developing in the world for many years. Back in 2000, the size of the software market outstripped the size of the arms market. The development of the digital economy in Russia is constrained by government regulation that cares about security - this is natural, it is a matter of maintaining a balance. And on a nationwide scale, experiments are dangerous. But take Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Yes, this is an industrial city that had nothing to do with services before. But people are the smartest. This is a complete agglomeration. A city with a calm and close to a mono-ethnic population. It could become a safe testing ground for developing new regulatory models - specifically in the field of information technology development.
- For example?
- A settlement with such wide avenues and a general plan, ideally suited for the development of unmanned vehicles - in Russia is still to be looked for. You can say that this is a city specially built for this purpose. He was built as a city of the future, and he can become one. The work is not easy, the formulation of the question is unusual. But just such an idea, worked out and well "packaged", can create the prerequisites for a breakthrough. This relates to the spirit of Komsomolsk-on-Amur - to do what no one in the world can do, and with the mentality of Komsomol members ready to punch walls, work days and nights if there is a clear goal. It is absolutely in accordance with how the city is built. Without haste and "storming" to the festive dates, you need to look at our possibilities, calculate the resources, attract the best people to this, awaken their initiative - we are also doing all this now.