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The magnetic properties of the selected sedimentary rock at various sea depths allow us to recreate the world climate picture and make predictions for the future
Russian Far Eastern scientists and their Chinese colleagues have completed a large-scale project to study sedimentary rocks at the bottom of the Okhotsk, Japan, Bering and Chukchi seas. For three expeditions, they selected a unique material, studying which they draw conclusions about how the climate was half a million years ago. Scientists calculate certain patterns of climate change and make predictions for the future.
A special tube is immersed at the bottom of the Sea of Okhotsk. The depth is several kilometers. A gravity tube on a long cable falls under the influence of gravity and cuts through the seabed. Scientists not only need to get to the ground, but also carefully remove 10-12 meters of rock. They made such tests in all the Far Eastern seas of the country. The Russian-Chinese research vessel has traveled thousands of kilometers. For three expeditions, scientists have brought 350 meters of core - rocks from the bottom of the northern seas. It was divided into pieces and will now be studied in the laboratory. According to it, scientists will conclude what the climate was like 300-500 thousand years ago.
“We can determine what the field was when the polarity reversal of the geomagnetic field occurred. During this time, various changes took place. It is still unknown why mammoths died out. Maybe there was a change in polarity, something happened in the atmosphere, everything changed. Perhaps there have been some global changes, ”says Galina Malakhova, a researcher at the North-Eastern Research Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The samples from the sea depths are also studied for the ancient flora and fauna, it also changes over time, not only underwater. So, on the Kolyma and Chukotka, once even grew tropical plants.
But in our time, there should not be any large-scale climate changes. Scientists came to the conclusion that there is a regularity in the onset of warming and cooling. Now in the Russian Far East, the peak of warming, but in twenty years everything will return to the indicators of fifty years ago.
“It will probably be even a little colder. Perhaps, like in our 60s in Magadan. Then frosts over thirty on the coast of the Kolyma were commonplace, now it is a rarity. And there was a lot of snow. We realized that the Pacific Ocean is now interacting with our region, with our seas, the Atlantic is influencing across the Arctic Ocean. Water exchange takes place through the Bering Strait. In other words, there is an exchange of thermal parameters of water, and of the atmosphere, ”says Mikhail Malakhov, one of the participants in the study, a leading researcher at the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.