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Cluster master class
At a meeting in the Khabarovsk Territory, they tried to understand who and how will create the first district cluster for the production of building materials in the Far East.
The issue of providing the regions of the Far East with building materials and personnel for the construction industry was vigorously discussed in Khabarovsk this week. It is here, in the wake of the recent visit of the aide to the President of the Russian Federation Maxim Oreshkin, that an active discussion is taking place on the creation of a large construction cluster, which would improve the situation in the construction industry of the macroregion. The Khabarovsk Territory has a lot to locate on its territory an industrial center capable of providing builders throughout the Far East - land, minerals, and a favorable geographic location. But something is still missing, but what exactly EastRussia understood.
Let us remind you that the decision made following the visit of the Russian presidential aide Maxim Oreshkin to Khabarovsk in July reads as follows: cluster for the production of building materials ". The next meeting of the working group on the creation of the building cluster was held on August 25 and turned out to be quite eventful, the audience represented the Ministry of Eastern Development, JSC "KRDV", FANU "Vostokgosplan", all relevant regional ministries, as well as business, science and education.
The benchmark for everyone is the goals of the National Program for the Socio-Economic Development of the Far East, one of which is the commissioning of 3,3 million square meters of housing per year. In 2020, throughout the Far Eastern Federal District, this figure was 2,5 million square meters. m, in total, the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District should build about 2021 million square meters from 2024 to 13. meters, and by 2030 - about 40 million square meters. meters. And besides this, there are large-scale industrial construction, and plans for the construction of social facilities. The construction industry cluster is called upon to cope with the super task: manufacturers of building materials must come together to get the maximum preferences, then the market will be saturated with everything necessary.
The shortage of materials in the construction industry of both the Khabarovsk Territory and the Far Eastern Federal District as a whole to meet these goals is not new. An impressive part of building materials both in the Khabarovsk Territory, and in the Far East in general, has to be imported either from the western regions of Russia or from abroad. In the Far Eastern Federal District, for example, there is no production of flat glass at all. The last plant, located in the Amur Region, went bankrupt in 2005. Almost 100% imported paints and varnishes, the same situation with ceramic tiles.
The speaker, Minister of Construction of the Khabarovsk Territory Andrei Chekulaev, only briefly outlined the needs and aspirations, focusing on the fact that the existing shortage of building materials has led to an abrupt rise in prices for them. “For certain items, such as, for example, for rolled metal products, the growth was more than 100%,” the minister said. - At our request, the regional antimonopoly service conducted an inspection. No unjustified rise in prices has been established; it is due to the increase in the cost of raw materials. Brick, precast concrete, crushed stone and cement also went up in price ”.
Image: press service of the Ministry of Construction of the Khabarovsk Territory
Another challenge and headache for the construction industry is the personnel issue. The region desperately needs both engineers and foremen, as well as ordinary builders. The education of the Khabarovsk Territory reports on its readiness to train specialists, they say, only an order is needed: "who and how much" regions of the country: “They (graduates of construction specialties - ed.) are taken away from us like cakes,” said Sergei Ivanchenko, “and they are being taken away from the central regions of Russia. They send out invitations and take advantage of the fact that our specialists are "cheaper" than those specialists who graduate from Moscow universities, besides, the salaries offered to them are higher than in the Far East. They buy it out on the go, as they say. "
“We want to see how we are moving: within the framework of only the Khabarovsk Territory, or we can scale the cluster to the entire Far East,” said Olga Kurilova, head of the Agency for Strategic Initiatives to Promote New Projects (ASI), “we need to understand what there are resources, whether all the other Far Eastern regions will move with us, or someone from the regions. We need to understand what resources they have - human, material, where there are construction sites. And, of course, we need to understand how to fill the cluster as much as possible so that entrepreneurs can come there. "
In general, the need for a cluster for the production of building materials is not disputed by anyone. The problem was, first of all, organizational: who should take the first step in order to consistently, starting with analytics and collecting information, accumulate the demands of the construction sector, form possible technological chains on this basis, and package investment projects. Just the gaps in the organizational plan were pointed out by Nina Polichka, director of the non-profit partnership “Far Eastern Research Center for Local Self-Government”.
“The traditional approach is that the creation of an industrial cluster is the task of business organizations. What do we have? We have a completely different task: it is necessary to create a cluster for the production of construction products in the Far East, and this task has been set by the Administration of the President of Russia ... And the solution of this problem differs from the solution of the issue of creating a classical industrial cluster. The main question is: who is the customer? If the cluster is "Far Eastern", then the government of the Khabarovsk Territory cannot be the customer. This should be a higher-level structure that will act as the central customer of the cluster. Further, the executors are determined, and, most importantly, the sources of funding. "
Nina Polichka noted that the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East may act as a customer. The regions of the Far Eastern Federal District interested in creating such a cluster can unite into an interregional group, create a program and then work according to the classic scenario - to analyze resources, needs, balance of demand, clarify the possibilities of the material and raw material base, and then invite investors.
Oleg Shevkunov, director of projects of the regional development center of the ASI regional development block, replied that, in his opinion, the first step should still be a meeting of businessmen interested in creating a cluster and the creation of a specialized management organization, which in itself will be a confirmation of the seriousness intentions to create a cluster. “We need an exchange of information, and it must be two-way. Who to talk to? This can be a body representing the business community, or specific people who are ready to unite in a cluster. This is the first step. Until it is done, all conversations are useless. And then there will be work on clarifying the needs, on state construction, and this will already be a conversation between two subjects - the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East and this association. And then everything immediately falls into place. Let's take a step. "
At the meeting that took place, this "step" has not yet been made, and they could not indicate at least an approximate time frame. “Today we have just looked at each other, for sure, normative legal acts will be developed. It is difficult now to say "when", but the government of the Khabarovsk Territory will do everything quickly and efficiently, - answered the question of EastRussia Kerim Sungurov, recently appointed acting director. Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Khabarovsk Territory for Construction. - I will say this: we do not consider the long-term perspective in this matter. Only short and medium term ”.
Photo: Press Service of the Government of Khabarovsk Territory
At the end of the meeting, the Minister of Construction of the Khabarovsk Territory Andrei Chekulaev reminded that the cluster was needed “yesterday”: “Colleagues, we are already late,” the minister said. - Exxon Mobile is about to begin construction of an LNG plant in De-Kastri. The price is one and a half trillion rubles! Let's set aside two-thirds for equipment that is very expensive, but even half a trillion is a five-year volume of development under the contract of the entire Khabarovsk Territory. I very much doubt that Exxon Mobile will bring reinforced concrete slabs, metal structures and everything else here from America. But if we cannot offer anything, the Americans will take it anywhere - they will bring it from Japan, from Korea, as it was on Sakhalin when the metal frame for the airport was imported from South Korea. "
And to the question: "Why was such a necessary structure not born in the Khabarovsk Territory itself before?" First Deputy Minister of Natural Resources of the region Andy Kovalchuk. “The Khabarovsk Territory has everything. There are no applications, - he said. - 370 sites are now in the public domain - total reserves of more than one billion 200 million tons. There is a facing stone, and granodiorite, and sandstone, and expanded clay raw materials, and refractory. Here is the site - you apply, you take it, you work. There is also cement raw materials in the Khabarovsk Territory - since 1996, no one takes it for use. The reserves there are 218 million tons, the additional explored - 624 million tons, laboratory tests were done, cement grades 400 and 500 were obtained. They offered it to all enterprises that deal with cement, everyone wrote that it was economically unprofitable, since there is little construction in the Khabarovsk Territory. " ...