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Качество жизни

The Far East: State ambitions and the real quality of life

Качество жизни

According to scientists from Moscow State University, the Far Eastern regions have not yet emerged in the general rating of the development rates of the subjects of the Russian Federation.

The Laboratory of Mathematical Methods of Political Analysis and Forecasting at Moscow State University assessed the quality of life of the population of the Russian regions and how it changed from 2006 to 2012. During this study, at the request of, considerable attention was paid to the Far East - a region that the state, through the mouths of its top officials, proclaimed a priority in the regional development strategy of the country.

“Quality of life” is a concept used by representatives of several sciences at once: economists, geographers, sociologists, demographers and others. According to this parameter, integrated from various statistical data according to a rather complex multistage formula, it becomes possible with maximum objectivity to assess the level and dynamics of social development of both individual regions and the country as a whole. That is why the attention of political scientists to the problems of the quality of life is also fully justified: this is the foundation on which key processes in the political and social spheres are based. It is this indicator that makes it possible to judge the greater or lesser effectiveness of a particular political system, the quality of the state's administrative activities and the development of social structures and institutions.

In European countries, relatively small in area and more or less homogeneous in climatic, economic, ethnic and social terms, the quality of life index is usually calculated for the entire country. In Russia, one cannot ignore the enormous size of the state and the significant disproportions between its separate parts. Therefore, the calculation is carried out for individual regions using a single methodology, after which a comparison of regional indicators among themselves, as well as the dynamics of development, is investigated.

The quality of life and the standard of living are different concepts, primarily in terms of their "bulk". The standard of living is an indicator reflecting the well-being of the population (income level, the ability to meet the basic needs of citizens in food, housing, medicines, etc.). The quality of life is a much broader concept, which includes not only the material well-being of people, but also the opportunities for access to quality health care, social security, transport, communications and communications, cultural activities, etc.).

Scientists from the Moscow State University in their study assessed the quality of life of the regions of the Russian Federation, achieved by 2012, and how it changed from 2006 year to 2012 year. The conclusions were based exclusively on official data of the Federal Service of State Statistics of the Russian Federation. This allowed us to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the activities of regional administrations and the political system of Russia as a whole with maximum objectivity. And although citizens' self-perception and expert assessments serve as important indicators for assessing the quality of life, in this case they would somewhat distort the real picture precisely because of their inevitable subjectivity and interrelationship with political campaigns or processes.

The researchers included in the final quality of life index integrated data on five thematic blocks: personal security (the number of murders for 100 thousand people), the housing conditions of citizens (including the proportion of total living space equipped with running water, the proportion of dilapidated and emergency housing stock in the total The area of ​​housing stock, the total area of ​​residential premises, an average per resident); Social sphere (the share of the population with cash incomes below the subsistence minimum, the Gini index, the unemployment rate according to the ILO methodology); Health of the population (infant mortality rate, average life expectancy) and ecology (amount of pollutant emissions per capita). It was also assessed how the quality of life indicator changed over time in different regions. This made it possible to identify in which regions the development model was more or less successful.

Regions with the optimal type of development of the quality of life in Russia (the "5" rating on a five-point scale) revealed only 8, one of them (Nenets Autonomous District) clearly lacked statistical data for building a qualitative model. In the Far East, two best students are the Magadan Region and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In the 62 constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the cases were "four" and there was a slowdown in the pace of development. "Троечники" (they turned out to be 13) slowed down in the last two years and in some cases demonstrated instability of development - from temporary successes to recessions and back. However, the decline in the quality of life was not catastrophic. Fortunately, there were no "doubles" among the Russian regions in recent years.

Particular attention in this study was given to the regions of the Far East. The scientists' conclusion is unambiguous: the level of quality of life in this federal district does not yet correspond to the ambitious strategies put forward in the capital, nor to the funds from the federal treasury invested in such programs. The best in this sense region - the resource-provided Sakhalin region - in 2012 took only 47 place in the general list of Russian territories. 48 and 55 are occupied by the Magadan Region and the Kamchatka Territory, respectively. These three regions have the highest quality of life index in the Far Eastern Federal District. And, interestingly, the quality of life of citizens does not directly depend on how developed the region's economy is: Kamchatka and Magadan are ahead of Primorye and the Khabarovsk Territory.

The Amur region, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the Jewish Autonomous Region and the Chukotka Autonomous Region are among the outsiders on both the Far Eastern and the All-Russian backgrounds. In 2012, they are ranked from 77 to 81 and are among the most problematic regions in the country. This is clearly seen when comparing specific indices of quality of life (see table). 

Level of
QL 2011
Level of
QL 2012
QL 2011
QL 2012
Evaluation of dynamics
Sakhalin Region 0,86 0,86 47 47 4
Magadan region 0,86 0,86 49 48 5
Kamchatka 0,85 0,85 54 55 3
Primorsky Krai 0,82 0,82 64 63 4
Khabarovsk Krai 0,80 0,81 68 64 4
Amur Region 0,72 0,71 76 77 4
The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) 0,71 0,70 77 78 5
Jewish Autonomous Region 0,66 0,67 79 79 4
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 0,74 0,62 74 81 4 (Unsustainable Development)

At the same time, the indices of the development dynamics of the Far Eastern territories are encouraging. In terms of its development, the region is ahead of Russia as a whole - in this sense, federal resources and programs still seem to "work" (see figure).

At the same time, the authors of the study call a number of factors that cause concern, despite the good dynamics of the development of the Far Eastern region:

· The development of some territories is very unstable, and these are the most problematic regions, such as Chukotka and the Jewish Autonomous Region.

• Stagnation processes began in Yakutia and the Amur Region, which are still quite far from the average Russian level. There are no guarantees that in the near future they will be able to maintain a good dynamic of development.

· Negative trends also appear in the "group of leaders", and the Kamchatka Krai is especially worried. On the one hand, stagnation was clearly indicated, on the other - a sharp dip in the crisis year 2009 indicates a systemic instability of the development model.

In general, the picture in all regions of the Far East is approximately the same. Almost everywhere the level of quality of life is not higher, but mainly lower than the average Russian. The only exception is the sphere of housing and utilities, where there are leaders in the face of the Magadan Region, the Kamchatka Territory and the Chukotka Autonomous District. However, this appears to be locally conditioned indicators related to the effect of the "low base" (a newer infrastructure in the territories mastered in a later period of time). The lowest indicators for regions-outsiders - in the field of public health and ecology. The list includes, for example, the Republic of Sakha, which traditionally holds high positions on economic indicators, but has demonstrated relatively low health indicators.

Security Housing and utilities Social
Sakhalin Region 64 32 59 56 63
Magadan region 61 11 42 72 65
Kamchatka 54 8 43 75 50
Primorsky Krai 68 55 48 71 49
Khabarovsk Krai 72 33 40 76 43
Amur Region 76 73 46 79 60
The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) 75 80 71 67 62
Jewish Autonomous Region 77 74 58 80 59
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 78 5 32 82 75

All these factors, the authors conclude, show that today the Far East has not made the "jerk" that is expected of it, and remains on the Russian background "periphery" and "province." Inside this district, the differences between the leading regions and outsiders are clearly visible. However, those who are now showing relatively favorable results are at any moment at risk of recoiling: development is extremely unstable, it is quite possible to increase stagnation processes, which will inevitably worsen the overall quality of life of citizens.

Leaders and outsiders on the quality of life in 2012

Life 2012
Rank 2012 Quality
Life 2012
Rank 2012
St. Petersburg 1,00 1 Nenets Autonomous Area 0,75 73
Kaliningrad region 0,96 2 Rep. Dagestan 0,75 74
The Republic of Tatarstan 0,95 3 Rep. Altai 0,74 75
Belgorod region 0,95 4 Trans-Baikal Territory 0,72 76
Murmansk region 0,94 5 Amur Region 0,71 77
Moscow 0,94 6 Rep. Sakha (Yakutia) 0,70 78
Moscow region 0,94 7 Jewish Autonomous Region 0,67 79
Voronezh region 0,93 8 Rep. Ingushetia 0,62 80
Lipetsk region 0,93 9 Chukotka 0,62 81
Rep. North Ossetia Alania 0,93 10 Rep. Tyva 0,37 82
Russia 0,85 0,85

The full report, as well as a table of results are available as follows.  link
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