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Quality is normal. Far Eastern
Where in the DFO is worse and better off, found out EastRussia
Rating Agency RIA Rating Media Group MIA Russia Today presented the next, the sixth in a row, the quality of life of the population in the Russian regions. According to the research, the quality of life indicators in the Far East are growing. But to reach the upper lines of the DFO is still beyond its power. Why the Far Eastern regions occupy low places in the rating of the quality of life of the population, dealt EastRussia.
The rating is compiled by the experts of the agency "RIA Rating" on the basis of 72 indicators 2017 year, which are taken from official open sources of the Federal State Statistics Service, federal ministries and the Central Bank of Russia. Then these indicators are divided into 11 groups, which characterize all the main aspects of the quality of life in the region - from the level of population incomes and unemployment to environmental conditions and the development of transport infrastructure. For each group, the rating points are calculated, on the basis of which the integral score is calculated, which determines the place of the subject in the rating.
Traditionally, the first places in the rating are held by Moscow, St. Petersburg and the Moscow region. Of the nine subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District, only four occupy seats above 50. This is Khabarovsk Territory (30 place), Kamchatka Territory (35 place), Magadan Region (44 place) and Primorsky Territory (48 place). At the same time, three Far Eastern regions are included in the last ten of the rating. The worst result was shown by the Jewish Autonomous Region, occupying 80 place, by two points ahead of its Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, having placed on 78 position. 71 ranked the rankings of Yakutia, the Amur and Sakhalin regions occupied 61 and 53 places respectively.
Experts of RIA Rating note that, in comparison with 2016, eight of the nine subjects of the DFO had a rating score. Leaders here were the Amur Region and the Khabarovsk Territory - these subjects managed to climb six points. The Chukotka Autonomous District, on the contrary, lost one point of the rating, having dropped from 77 to 78 place, the positions of Yakutia and the Sakhalin Region have not changed. The Jewish Autonomous Region, although it rose to one line in the rating, still remains an outsider both at the DFO level and at the federal level.
LAST IN THE LIST
The figures that led the Jewish Autonomous Region at 80 place in the rating speak for themselves. From 85 of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in terms of the monetary incomes of the population to the cost of a fixed set of consumer goods and services, the region occupies 80 place, and the share of the population with incomes below the subsistence minimum is 81. At the same time, the unemployment rate in this entity is such that it firmly provides 70 with this indicator. Even worse is the average time of job search and the share of the population looking for work more than three months. For these positions the region occupies 75 place.
The situation becomes even clearer if you look at the indicators included in the group "The level of economic development." According to the absolute volume of production of goods and services, the region occupies 82 place, and by the share of profitable enterprises - 84.
The positions of the oblast and the indicators included in the group "Housing conditions of the population" do not look the best either. 69 place for the total area of residential premises, an average of one inhabitant, and 70-e for the share of dilapidated and emergency housing.
There are problems for residents of the EAO and in the field of security of residence. According to the number of crimes per ten thousand people, the region occupies 80 place. The situation is worse only in five regions: the Amur Region (81 place), the Sakhalin Region (82 place), the Republic of Buryatia (83 place), the Trans-Baikal Territory (84 place) and the Republic of Tyva (85 place).
The last place in the rating area was occupied by the indicator "Population change for three years". At the same time, according to the natural and migratory growth (loss) of the population in 2017, the results turned out to be quite good - 44 and 51 places, respectively.
Expectedly good result the area showed by emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere - 22 position of the rating. Moscow has 82 in this indicator, and St. Petersburg has 79. Quite high 26 place EAO took on the share of the population provided with drinking water that meets the safety requirements.
But despite the good environmental situation, the region shows low places in the ranking in terms of indicators included in the group "Health of the population and the level of education". So, in terms of infant mortality rate and perinatal mortality rate, the EAO occupied the last 85 places, and on mortality of the working-age population - 83. The situation is aggravated also by the fact that the number of doctors per hundred thousand people has led the region to 83 place. The situation is worse only in the Chechen Republic (84 place) and the Kurgan region (85 place). At the same time, EAO managed to take the first place in the indicator "Average employment of beds in the year", and the second for providing the population with hospital beds.
The situation is not even better in education, in terms of indicators "The proportion of the population aged 15 to 72 years with higher professional education" and "The proportion of the population aged 15 to 72 years without basic general education" the region settled on 85 and 83 place accordingly. Although in terms of children's security in places in kindergartens, the region occupies 23 place, and by the share of schools and kindergartens in emergency condition it managed to break out to the seventh position.
"One of the main factors affecting all indicators of the quality of life is the economy," says Nikolai Lipatin, PhD in Economics. "This is the locomotive that pulls everything from unemployment to crime." Therefore, it is quite logical that the Jewish Autonomous Region showed such low results in this rating. For example, on the total turnover of small and micro enterprises, individual entrepreneurs, it occupies 80 place, and in terms of investment in fixed assets - 81. Hence, a high level of unemployment, and migration outflow, and low incomes of the population.
At the other end of the rating among the Far Eastern regions is the Khabarovsk Territory. For a year, this subject managed to secure a breakthrough from 36 to 30, pushing Saratov region, which, having lost three positions, moved to 33 place.
At first glance, if you look at the indicators related to the social and public sphere, it is not entirely clear how the edge managed to rise in the rating immediately at 6 points.
The fact is that according to the number of crimes for ten thousand people, the edge, like the other subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District, demonstrates not at all encouraging indicators. 71 place in 2017 year against 70 in 2016. In general, for the group "Security of residence" the region showed a significant loss of positions. So, if in 2016 year by the number of victims for ten thousand people he occupied 67 place, then in 2017 there is already 76. The situation with an accident is no better. In 2016, the number of road accidents with the affected region held 67 position, and in 2017-m rolled back to 74.
The situation with the indicators characterizing the health of the population is no better. If in 2016 the death-rate of the population in working age the edge occupied 61 place, then in 2017 - 68, the situation with infant mortality still looks catastrophic - 58 in 2017 year, against 41 in 2016. 10 points the region lost in the indicator "The number of average medical personnel per one hundred thousand people", in 2017 year it occupied 71 place, and in 2016 held 61. Minor, but still the decline occurred and the number of doctors - 30 ranked in the last ranking against 28 in last year's.
However, despite the decline in social indicators, the growth of the edge in the rating was achieved due to the economic component. For example, in terms of turnover of small and micro enterprises, it broke out to 8 place, although in the rating-2016 occupied only 19 line. The total turnover of small and micro enterprises and individual entrepreneurs increased from 27 places in 2016 to 21 in 2017.
According to the indicators included in the group "Population incomes", the region confidently enters the top twenty. It occupies 13 place by the volume of deposits (deposits) of individuals in banks and 19 place in relation to the monetary incomes of the population to the cost of a fixed set of consumer goods and services. It is worth noting that in the 2016 ranking of the year the edge for the same indicators occupied 13 and 23 places, respectively. At the same time, estimating the proportion of residents with incomes below the subsistence minimum, experts in 2017 determined the edge at 24 place, which is also a very good indicator compared to the 28 place in 2016.
In addition, according to the absolute volume of investment in fixed assets, the region took 36 place. This position in the rating is fully justified and is consistent with the rating data "The level of development of public-private partnership in the subjects of the Russian Federation," which in April last year wrote EastRussia. Then, according to the results of 2016 year, Khabarovsk Territory took 11 place, rising immediately to 10 points.
The region showed good dynamics in terms of its own revenues in total consolidated budget revenues, taking 25 position, compared to 31 in 2016.
RATING OF REGIONS - SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
An analysis of the indicators used to compile the rating, as applied to the Far Eastern regions, shows that, in economic terms, most of them are on close positions. So the share of profitable enterprises in Yakutia, Sakhalin, Amur regions and Khabarovsk Territory is approximately the same - 51, 54, 58 and 63 places, respectively. Outsiders on this indicator are the Magadan Region (72 place), the Chukotka Autonomous District (81 place) and the Jewish Autonomous Region (84 place). At the same time Primorsky Krai by the number of profitable enterprises is the undoubted leader - 10 ranked.
Another important factor determining the regions' self-sufficiency is the share of their own revenues in the total revenues of the consolidated budgets. Five of the subjects of the Far Eastern Okrug take places in this indicator below 50: the Kamchatka Territory (77 place), the Chukot Autonomous Area (76 place) Magadan Region (66 place), the Jewish Autonomous Region (60 place) and Yakutia (57 place). Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories were on 25 and 31 places, respectively, and the leader here was the Sakhalin region, taking the third place behind only Moscow and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area.
"This indicator depends heavily on either large investment projects or on the presence of large taxpayer companies on the territory of the subject," explains Nikolai Lipatin, PhD in Economics. - That's why in the first three we see KhMAO, which is the main oil and gas bearing area of Russia, and also the Sakhalin Region, where the Sakhalin-1 project is currently being implemented.
As for indicators characterizing the social sphere, the Far Eastern subjects unite a high level of crime.
"Unfortunately, the criminogenic situation in the Far Eastern regions leaves much to be desired," says sociologist Maxim Namdakov. - The rating reflects this trend quite clearly - in terms of the number of crimes per ten thousand population, the Sakhalin Region at 82 place, the Amur Region on 81, the Jewish Autonomous Region on 80. The remaining subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District take places either in the eighth or in the seventh ten. The only exception is the Republic of Yakutia - it is at 31 place. Sociological research shows that the high level of household criminality of the population is disturbing, and this in turn has a bad effect on the standard of living and ultimately, coupled with other factors, leads to outflow of the population.
Indeed, according to the migration loss of the population, Far Eastern territories have not very good indicators, so Primorsky Territory occupies 71 place in the rating, Khabarovsk Krai - 69, Amur Region - 66.
"Such places in the rating for subjects not the worst and according to climatic conditions and economic positions are an alarming symptom," says Namdakov. "It means that, despite the efforts of the government, it is not possible to reverse the negative trends that cause the outflow of population from the eastern territories.