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From China - with a breeze
EastRussia has studied what prevents high-speed rail communication between Russia and China
The PRC proposes to create the Russian side a high-speed highway (VSM) Changchun — Vladivostok. EastRussia figured out how much this project could do.
HOW IT IS TEACHED
The first secretary of the Jilin Provincial Party Committee, Bain Chaolu, offered to consider the possibility of creating a high-speed Changchun-Vladivostok railway line during the talks held last week with the first deputy minister for the development of the Far East, Alexander Osipov. "We are confident in the prospects of such a highway, especially given that it is part of a single line to Beijing. We believe that the implementation of this project is of interest to both the Chinese and the Russian side, "said Bain Ciaolu.
Actually, the city of Hunchun, located near the Russian-Chinese border, already has a high-speed passenger traffic (200-250 km / h), which was opened in 2015 year. It remains to organize a message through the Hunchun-Kamyshovaya border crossing (Makhalino) to Vladivostok. The distance from Hunchun to the capital of Primorye according to the current railway scheme is slightly more than 300 km.
The Jilin Province and the Primorsky Territory are currently connected by the single-track non-electrified Khasan-Makhalino-Baranovsky-Ussuriysk line, which opens onto the Trans-Siberian Railway. Its capacity - 16 pairs of trains - by now is actually fully working for cargo traffic: it provides cargo forwarding to the ports of Posiet, Slavyanka, Zarubino, Mahalino and Khasan checkpoints. Over the past year, the cargo turnover of the Khasan-Baranovski line amounted to 12,4 million tons. The Far Eastern Railway prepared proposals for the development of the site, including automatic blocking and reconstruction of stations, and the construction of a separate third road between Ussuriisk and Baranovsky in order to dilute the growing cargo flows to the seaport ports . In case of timely financing, the infrastructure will be able to provide 2020 million tons of transport annually in the entire Khasansky branch in the amount of 22 million tons. In the future it is supposed to increase the carrying capacity to 30 million tons.
As for passenger traffic, a direct-through car runs on this route twice a month, ensuring the organization of the Moscow-Pyongyang route. Several years ago, the composition of the Khabarovsk - Khasan was appointed to the peak of the summer season (from August to the beginning of September) for holidaymakers in the Khasansky district of Primorye, although the practice turned out to be short. Despite appeals by Khabarovsk travel agencies, the carrier, the Federal Passenger Company (FPC), was unprofitable to continue organizing the seasonal itinerary.
It is worth saying that three years ago the FTC canceled the Grodekovo-Suifenhe train, which operated on the basis of an agreement between the Far Eastern and Harbin railroads because of unprofitability. The growth of tourists from China did not compensate the carrier for the decline in passenger traffic from Russia, including because of a fall in Russians' incomes, according to the terms of the agreement, the proceeds from the sale of travel documents remain with the departure of passengers. Currently, this message serves the composition of the Chinese formation. For 2015 year, through the border crossing Grodekovo-Suifenhe transported in both directions 167 thousand passengers.
Hence there is a certain skepticism in loading the express Changchun-Vladivostok. According to the FSB border service, in 2016, about 669 thousand tourist trips (including popular resort destinations) were carried out for the purpose of tourism to China from Russia. For comparison, in 2013-m there were more than 1 million. At the same time, the flow of tourists from China is growing. In 2016, under the intergovernmental agreement on visa-free group trips to Primorye, almost 200 thousand Chinese citizens entered, which is 60% more than the previous result. The total number of guests from the Middle Kingdom, who visited the region last year, was 420 thousand people.
But even if we imagine that all Chinese tourists coming to the Primorsky Territory will want to use the Changchun-Vladivostok highway, it is obvious that in order for the project to pay back this flow should increase many times over. For comparison, passenger transportation in the future Moscow-Kazan High-Speed Railway, in the creation of which it is planned to invest 1,2 trillion rubles, according to the pessimistic Mosgiprotrans scenario (included in the consortium of high-speed highway designers) is estimated at 15 million people annually. Although critics of this route put these calculations into question. So, the experts of the firm Deloitte found out that the economic soundness of the project is based on passenger traffic, exceeding the existing one almost eight times. On the other hand, there is a reverse example, when the Sapsan launched between Moscow and St. Petersburg significantly exceeded the initial forecasts during its operation.
By the way, skepticism also sounded in China, when the Changchun-Hunchun highway was being built. As Bain Chaolu noted, initially there were many doubts about its loading, but the project was successfully implemented by the Chinese government, and today this message is in demand. The representative of Jilin Province believes that the Changchun-Vladivostok road will be the same.
HOW MUCH CAN IT COST
Based on the total investment in the Moscow-Kazan SCSM with a length of about 770 km, the construction of the 1 km of the road is an average of about 1,5 billion rubles. With a similar landscape, where the railway sections pass (on the line Mahalino - Baranovskiy exception, perhaps, is the transfer Sukhanovka - Ryazanovka, which goes through the pass), the construction of the 208-kilometer route from Kamyshovaya to Baranovsky can cost more than 310 billion rubles.
But also on the Transsib for the organization of high-speed traffic it is necessary to build an isolated canvas. Here there is a rather complicated path profile: in the Ussuriisk-Vladivostok direction, the length of 112 km has many curved sections, more than 40% of them are curves of radius less than 600 m which will not allow us to reach high speeds. Currently, the maximum that the electric train on the Vladivostok-Artem route is developing, is 105 km / h.
It should be noted that it is not the first time in Primorye that the question of organizing high-speed passenger traffic is raised. Even before the APEC-2012 summit, the regional authorities suggested that Russian Railways organize this type of communication between Ussuriysk and Vladivostok, subsequently distributing it to Nakhodka. The goal was to reduce the travel time of electric trains between cities due to a gradual increase in speeds: first to 120-160 km / h, then to 200-250 km / h.
Institute "Dalgiprotrans" considered three options for organizing high-speed traffic. The first assumed the development of the existing route. According to him, reconstruction was required with the removal of the turnouts from the curves, the improvement of the track plan by increasing the radii of the curves and laying straight inserts between the curves. The work was estimated at about 20 billion rubles. in 2011 prices. The second option provided for the partial construction of a separate track along the existing line on the Transsib sections: Ussuriisk - Razdolnoye, Razdolnoye - Nadezhdinskaya. From Nadezhdinskaya station to Vtoraya Rechka, a dedicated route was to pass through the De Vries Peninsula with a 13 km long low-water bridge - similar to the automobile crossing created for the APEC summit. The preliminary volume of investments under this option is about 93,8 billion rubles.
The last option suggested building a separate path on a greater length of the site. At first, on the Ussuriisk segment - the 9183 km stopping point, the route would go the third way, then it crossed the Razdolnaya river and went into the tunnel of the 4 km long to Olenevod station (the Khasan - Baranovsky line). From the latter, you need to take the second path to the village of Klyuchevoy. Further, to the stopping point, the Seagull Route must cross the mouth of the Razdolnaya River and pass through the Amur Bay by a low-water bridge. The total length of the bridge in this case is 17 km. In the section Chaika - The second river, the third way is arranged again, and then to the final point the movement of express trains is organized according to the existing infrastructure.
As can be seen, Dalgiprotrans did not consider the possibility of creating a separate path between the stations of the Second River and Vladivostok. This is probably an unrealistic scenario, since in this case, given the dense urban development, many buildings and structures would have to be demolished. Yes, and the high speed of the passenger trains here is probably not so important - the guests of the regional center will want to admire the city views from the train window. It is worth saying that at present, cruise ship calls to Vladivostok are gaining popularity among the tourist sightseeing services on the “Primorye Express” train.
For the organization of the Changchun-Vladivostok VSM, the latest version of the design institute is the most acceptable. In addition, it shortens the length of the high-speed highway by at least 50 km. But its approximate cost at the time of preliminary calculations was about 136,3 billion rubles.
A LEASE ON WHAT?
In addition to the question of the conformity of the plan to the parameters of high-speed traffic, it becomes necessary to choose the appropriate electric rolling stock. Currently, modern electric trains ED9M run in Primorye, having a design speed of 130 km / h, they certainly will not ensure the implementation of the standard values of travel time within the SCM.
China has accumulated considerable experience in railway engineering, including high-speed traffic. Recently, new electric trains "Fusin" began to run along the Beijing-Shanghai highway, speeding up to 350 km / h, while in their predecessors it did not exceed 300 km / h. Rolling stock is the development of China Railway.
As the first secretary of the Jilin Provincial Party Committee, Bain Chaolu noted, Chinese investors are interested in the Changchun-Vladivostok VSM project. However, potential project participants were not voiced. In any case, they will have to organize a consortium with the Russian participant in the project. According to current industry requirements, up to 80% of rolling stock production should be localized on the territory of Russia.
By the way, the Chinese Changchun Railway Vehicles Co. (CRRC), state-controlled, has begun to design a train for Moscow-Kazan High-Speed Railway, which must maintain speeds of up to 400 km / h. Her partner is the Sinara group. The agreement provides for the consolidation of companies' efforts to provide orders for the supply of at least 100 high-speed trains. According to some estimates, the average price for a high-speed car is from $ 700 thousand, that is, the composition of the 20 cars is about $ 15 million or about 840 million rubles.