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Vladimir LukashevExpert on China and South-East Asia
"Massaraksh", - I thought, just like that hero of the Strugatsky brothers. Precisely, the world has turned out on the wrong side. And this is what we see in this new reality:
At present, the following main administrative economic entities with preferential regimes operate in China:
- 5 special economic zones;
- 90 zones of technical and economic development of the state level;
- 75 zones of new and high technologies;
- 13 free customs zones;
- 14 zones of cross-border economic cooperation of the state level;
In fact, these are the embryos of a new China - a superpower of the 21-th century. But we must nevertheless say that Russia's achievements in the field of science and technology are not limited to the production of Lada cars. China may well be interested in our developments in the military, space and aviation industries, as well as in the field of energy, and primarily nuclear power. As for China, we first of all are interested in the experience of China's accelerated development, especially in the field of new technologies. And this experience is based on two principles. Confucian ethics and common sense. However, the very notion of common sense was defined by Confucius in the Five Principles of the Righteous Man.
History of China has five thousand years. The basis of the national thinking of the Chinese was formulated by Confucius in the fifth century BC. Since that time there have been ups and downs of Confucianism. There were times when adherents of this ideology were buried in the ground alive, and there were times when you could not expect success if you did not adhere to the principles of Confucianism. In the end, the teaching of Confucius became the basis of the Chinese mentality.
As for common sense ... Remember the fable about the man and the bear? Well, where a sly man and a stupid bear shared tops and roots? So, the sly man was clearly Chinese. And the dumb bear - by the international community.
When the leaders of the PRC, and especially Deng Xiao Ping, ceased to be guided by the communist ideology and began to look at the world with wide open eyes, they were faced with the question: "How to launch the outstripping development of the country's economy and catch up with the" civilized world "?"
First, they declared a real war of corruption. The task was the hardest. The Chinese concept of "guanches" ( Communication) was absorbed with the mother's milk. However, there was already an interesting experience of Singapore, where "Iron Li" defeated corruption with cruel and inevitable punishments. And he began with his comrades-in-arms. The PRC followed the same path. The country's leadership realized that corruption is not stealing and bribes as such, corruption is when thieves and bribes go unpunished. And today in China, getting a firing sentence for corruption in especially large amounts is easier than easy. So, for example, if we imagine that the "mortgage auctions" that took place in Russia with violation of all conceivable and unthinkable laws would have taken place in China, then none of their participants or organizers would have remained at large and no one would have paid attention Nor on their high posts, nor on their connections with the leadership of the country. And the fact that the capital received in this way would have been confiscated on the verdict of the court, then this can be no doubt. Thus, the country's leadership "cleared the ground" for the construction of a new superpower and made the businessman a respected person.
Secondly, China acted in the spirit of Wu-shu - made its weakness by its strength. They turned the poverty of the population into the driving force of the country's development. Cheap labor itself is evil. But if you invite leading world corporations to the country and create conditions for their development, evil will turn into an ass that will drag the country's economic development. Sooner or later it will be necessary to stimulate the growth of incomes of the population, but at the first stage of development such a plan works very well.
Thirdly, China has begun to learn from those who have succeeded in their development. Something the Chinese bought, and that they could not buy, copied without demand. Not good? Certainly not good, but that's life. So, China has gone through a decade in a decade, which has taken a century for other countries.
That's how the leaders of China laid the foundation for the dynamic development of their country and began to turn China into a superpower of the twenty-first century.
Today's day of China is not without problems. The labor force is becoming more expensive, the awareness is growing that only countries that are able to realize their own development have the future, and not live at the expense of using strangers. Yes, and the illegal use of other people's ideas the country's leadership has ceased to shut eyes. It was here that the intellectual potential of those who were sent to study abroad was required. And in China itself, at that time, the potential of well-educated intellectuals was created, ready to work on the development of their own science, applied research and experimental development.
In 2006, China adopted the so-called "2020 Plan". This is an expanded program for the development of the country with an emphasis on the use of innovations. The objectives of this plan are:
1. Building an innovative economy through creating their own innovations and reducing dependence on foreign technologies;
2. The transformation of enterprises and the business sector into the central driving force of the process of building a national innovation system;
3. Achievement of breakthrough in strategic areas of technological development.
And I must say that the leaders of China usually do not disagree with the matter.
However, in order to understand what China will be in the future, it is not necessary to have a time machine. It is enough, having looked at pictures and photos of old Shanghai, to visit Shanghai today. The contrast is striking.
Here is how IA Goncharov, who looked at the city from his frigate Pallada, described Shanghai many years ago: "Here and Shanghai is visible ... Ships and junks, beautiful European buildings, gilded shrine, Protestant churches, gardens - all this is crowding Still unclear pile, without any perspective, as if the church stands on the water, and the ship on land ... "
All this brings to mind the slogan that was at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo: "The best city - the best life."