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Igor Bystrov: "There is no fisherman without shore"
On the problems of the fishing industry and how they are solved in Sakhalin in an interview with the agency "East Russia", said Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Sakhalin Region Igor Bystrov, in charge of the fishing industry of the region
The problems and prospects of the fishing industry in the country were discussed at the end of last week in Moscow at a meeting of the Presidium of the State Council of the Russian Federation chaired by President Vladimir Putin. The agenda, a key report with proposals for solving the problems of the industry, was prepared by a working group headed by Sakhalin Oblast Governor Oleg Kozhemyako. The fishing industry of the Far Eastern regions, including Sakhalin, actively participated in this work.
- In 2008, our state decided that we choose the best of the best, those who know how to catch, those who have a fleet and some other points, and entered into contracts with them. That is, they established a quota share for the 10 years. And in 2017, the end of this period
And the problem that has arisen now is when they say why the fishermen did not update the fleet over the years or about something else there. But I'm sorry, at the conclusion of the contract, that's exactly what no one said. We 10 years were, in general, a cost-effective business. And we created it.
Territory interests are the second question.
For example, our North Kuril region 50% of its own income receives from fisheries activities. The main impact for the territory is when we process fish on the shore. This is the first moment.
The second point: far from all the fish can and must be passed through coastal processing. We mine 2,5 million tons of aquatic biological resources in the Far East (FBG). Onshore processing plants are the most powerful and developed from Sakhalin and to Kamchatka processing about half a million tons. It's all shore power! Well, maybe 350 thousand tons are still in the Primorsky Territory. But that's all.
- And where does the rest of the catch go?
- And the rest is processed on ships. Including there are enterprises whose fleet is based, repaired and unloaded somewhere in Busan or Dalian, and caught in our economic zone without touching the shore.
- Have they received and exported fish to our quotas? Even if it's legal, it's legal.
- It's legal. But the question is the following: why did not we put these restrictions when it was necessary?
In fact, the issues of fish processing at our onshore enterprises are not envisaged when setting the catch rates, except once in life when drawing up a contract for the use of a fishing area. The advantage is enjoyed by those who have fish processing closer to the fishing site. That's all.
We have been talking about fish processing in our country for many years, but there is no fish processing. In accordance with Art. The 2 Fisheries Act volumes for businesses are set with processing. That is, there is such a word in the federal fisheries law, but there is no by-law mechanism in the treaties or elsewhere that this should be implemented.
- That is, all this needs to be adjusted in the interests of the regions in the law on fishing?
- Of course.
We invested in the Kuril program, built berths, schools, hospitals, airplanes, roads. Spent billions of rubles of budgetary funds. Because the fishermen and their families live there. That is, this is what, first of all, natural resources should be tied to. We should not divert the extraction of fish and seafood from the coastal infrastructure! A fisherman does not exist without a shore.
One workplace in fishing creates from 7 to 12 jobs. This is why coastal coastal cities developed so rapidly in Japan, South Korea, and China. We brought fish there, and this one workplace in the Russian fishery created more
If we want to become a world power, I mean in terms of leadership positions in fishing, it is necessary to create shipbuilding and ship repair, infrastructure of fish and seafood turnover in the country.
- Salmon path in this year in your region failed. And do you still have hope for the late ket, or is it too clear?
"The failure of Putin is a very serious event. If it did not happen, we would not understand many things.
Economic entities that fish for chum salmon can be counted on their fingers, and the absence of pink salmon can not be blocked by the ket. The bulk of the pink salmon production creates the main number of jobs in the Sakhalin region. Pink salmon makes it possible for everyone to live.
- What is the situation due to pink salmon? Where was our science?
- There were several factors, most likely. Maybe something happened in the water. Well, the previous authorities systematically did everything to minimize or reduce the number and effectiveness of natural spawning. Fishery fences (RUZ) have done their work.
Sakhalin was a unique situation until some time. We have artificial and natural reproduction working together. Filled natural spawning grounds and plus received an additional fish that was laid in fish factories. Worked out technology, increased efficiency of hatcheries and returns of fish grown on these plants began to increase. Plus, nature has helped well: the survival rate of juvenile salmon has increased. This explains the harvest fishing boats of recent years. But somewhere from 2008, we began to massively regulate the filling of spawning grounds using RUEs. Someone has calculated that 2 pieces of salmon on 1 square. m - the marginal rate, the third individual harms spawning grounds. Slyness of course, and it also turned out that no one knows the area of the spawning grounds themselves, and, consequently, how much fish in the end need to be run in order to fill them.
- But for this there are institutions?
- In fact, there are powers that are assigned to SakhNIRO, Sakhalinrybvod and Sakhalin-Kuril Territorial Administration of the Federal Agency for Fishery. This is a state monitoring of filling spawning grounds. And this is very important! And he is not underway.
"No money, no people?" What is the reason? Why not?
- And the same story as with the delivery of fish for processing on the Russian coast, which I told you about. There is a word, but there is no monitoring.
- You said in one of your interviews that only 8 rivers are monitored. And the rivers in the region 65 thousand!
- In fact, monitoring is conducted in 4 rivers. I have obsolete data.
"Monitoring is federal authority?"
- Yes. Federal powers, only regional responsibility. It turns out an absurd situation. All in the business, all medals, but no fish.
It must be understood that the spawning grounds are empty, most of the salmon hatcheries left without a bookmark for pink salmon. We can already predict the results of the 2017 year.
Therefore, in contrast to science, the regional authorities do not have time for swinging. Now the program for the development of the fishery complex is being formed. Within the framework of which, measures will be implemented to restore the stocks undermined by the fishery. It's not just salmonids. Oyster banks of the Busse Lagoon, the potential of the coastal waters of Western Sakhalin, the Kunashiri and Shikotan Coves, the restoration of the recreational potential of the regional PAs.
The next direction is security. Obviously, even the smallness that we miss on spawning grounds is often cut by poachers. A decade ago, the subjects of the federation were given powers to protect the biological biological resources of inland water bodies. In the Sakhalin Oblast, these powers, in fact, have not yet been transferred. We plan in the shortest possible time, organize the execution of delegated powers on the basis of the forestry and hunting farms of the region. The first steps in this direction have been made. This year, thanks to the joint efforts of the regional government and ATC leadership, to fight poachers on Sakhalin, OMON fighters from other regions of the country were attracted.
- What happened to you with Putin touched Kamchatka and other regions? Or is it a pure Sakhalin story? Experts say that red caviar will cost 3 thousand rubles per 1 kg. This is true? Even in Moscow, on New Year's Day, traditionally in every second house on the table are sandwiches with red caviar.
- This situation only on Sakhalin, we did not get as a whole more than 100 thousand tons of red fish. In other regions, Putin has passed normally. But salmon markets in our country are defined by two regions. About 90% of the total catch of red fish is Kamchatka and Sakhalin. And the fact that Sakhalin caught only a third of what it was supposed to catch, and the market did not go more than 100 thousand tons, of course, causes a rise in prices for this fish and caviar.
The main type of caviar in our New Year's table is pink salmon, which did not come to Sakhalin this year. Therefore, the price of caviar is rising.
- Will Kamchatka not level the situation for caviar prices? Did she have normal catches?
- Not. This year we received half less caviar than usual, a clear drawback in the market. Supply declined 2 times, and demand increased. But caviar is not a socially significant food product. Although we have a selling price for caviar today about 1 thousand rubles per 1 kg, and you are talking about 3 thousand rubles. That is the difference in 3 times. Where does the price in 3 thousand rubles? In this chain, the mass of intermediaries - from the manufacturer to the consumer. There is also not cheap transportation costs. Fish on ships sailing to Vladivostok and then delivered by rail.
- In Moscow, near many subway stations there are shops, they are called "Sakhalin fish". Vendors say that it is Sakhalin caviar and fish, but it is done in Vladivostok. You know about this network?
- We still have many firms in Sakhalin that buy fish: I ordered canned food from you from your fish, you make them to me, but the tag on canned goods will be mine. So you get the products in the stores, which seems to be Sakhalin, but not quite.
- Tell us about the program "Available Fish", which Oleg Nikolaevich Kozhemyako launched in the region?
- The cheapest fish is the fish that I caught myself. The next lowest-priced fish can only be where the minimum cheating is on it: I myself caught and sold it to you. This is a fair, markets. In the same Busan in South Korea, in the port cities of Japan there are small markets where you can buy anything from fish and seafood.
We now 1 once a week organize fairs in our cities. Available fish that we sell on Sakhalin in chain stores is pollock, rasp, and herring. Prices for pink salmon are higher due to the failure of the boat, as it is impossible to make something cheaper that is not. Therefore, in the retail chains at lower prices, we will introduce squids and other kinds of fish to replace salmon. We have a situation with affordable prices under control, the names of all the stores, together with reasonable prices, are placed on the website of the regional Ministry of Agriculture.
- It turns out that such prices with the minimum markup are still profitable for retail chains?
- Yes. It turns out this way - fishermen by direct contract, without intermediaries, gave pollock on 50 rubles per 1 kg, in retail chains made a minimum margin in the amount of 19 rubles per 1 kg. Up to the “Available Fish” program this price for pollock reached 160 rubles for 1 kg in regional stores, uncut pollock with head cost about 115 rubles for 1 kg, and already ready fillets - more than 200 rubles for 1 kg. Why did trading networks go to us? We began dumping, began to export more good quality fish to fairs, and people went mainly to fish there. Therefore, the network thought and decided to be friends with the fishermen. The most remarkable thing that happened with us was the decrease in the price of fish - the consumption of this type of food increased in the region this year.
- How much?
- About 20% per month for the last six months. And this is despite the fact that the salmon fishing season has failed.
In general, the consumption of aquatic biological resources by the population of the Sakhalin region, according to official statistics, is on average 18 thousand tons per year, but with poultices and welding we consume somewhere around 30 thousand tons. Of this volume, the third part in the official and unofficial circulation is salmon. But the salmon failed this year, we replaced it with other species of fish.
The project "Available fish" consists of segments. There is also cooking. Fishermen are also now delivering their catches to culinary enterprises under direct contracts, thanks to which prices for culinary products are also falling. And these enterprises produce products of very good quality, which are in demand among the local population. I want to note that under this regional program we implement only high-quality and fresh fish.
Without Oleg Nikolayevich, the program "Affordable Fish" would not have gone. Since we are implementing it in a very incoherent legal field. When we are told that according to such a subordinate legal act of such a controlling structure it can not be done, then Oleg Nikolaevich has to tell the same prosecutor's office that the regional government has the task of feeding the population, despite legal conflicts. As for the quality of products: the governor himself goes shopping, talking to customers, the same retired people, and if there are complaints or questions, he personally asks them to sellers and businesses.
- And due to the fact that Putin has not been successful, the fishing companies will suffer greatly? Can some companies go bankrupt?
- Yes, someone will be ruined.
The fact that the fish did not come is a problem, but it does not matter. The trouble is that all the fish is contracted. Here you are talking about the unknown firmochki, who created a chain of stores in Moscow and sell red caviar. Why are they selling? Because in circulation they already bought all the red fish before the beginning of the trial. And the fish did not come.
- And what to do with this failed Putin in a year, in two?
- The biggest problem in the Russian Federation is that we have a single species fishery in Russia. Two-thirds of Far Eastern catches are pollock and salmon. We add herring, a little bit of terpuga, cod and the whole catch is obtained. We can not catch anything else. Therefore, it turns out, the salmon did not come and what we do, there is nothing to replace it with.
- What does it mean to catch do not know how?
- We have almost no fleet left. Small fleet is almost there. In addition, the objects that could be fished by this small fleet are beyond the limits of generally acceptable catches (TACs). Here is the same question on the salmon pathway with scientific support. We are moving away from expeditionary scientific support.
No funding available.
- Why Rosrybolovstvo does not fight for this line of funding and does not say that if science is ruined, there will be no fish in the next 15 years?
- Yes, science needs to be supported. We are unique, we are the only country in the world where commercial fishing can only catch what has been a full-scale scientific research. And accordingly, we have 1 million tons of EBRD, which are spinning on the Russian market, but fell out from under the influence of the state.
It turned out that amateur fishing to some extent replaced commercial fishing. In this "gray" zone, where the fishery goes under the guise of amateur fishing, the whole smelt, all navaga, coastal crabs and other types of VBR went away. This whole fish is eaten in the territory of the Russian Federation, it does not go abroad. In the Sakhalin region, we tried to divide the amateur fishery from small-scale production. Oleg Nikolaevich Kozhemyako initiated this and we now through the MFC issue vouchers for the same salmon for the population. For yourself, any person can catch 3 fish per day anywhere in this place. And for those objects of the fishery that go into commerce and are sold, we have now done something of a patent system. At the first stage, we simply need to divorce them in different directions - commerce and amateur fishing.
- Are there parameters that define this small-scale production?
- The state has canceled these parameters, so amateur fishing and small-scale production were combined. Restrictions today are made only for fishing gear. In amateur fishing, for example, you can catch a fishing rod, but you can not network. That is, the fishing load is limited, and this is not effective. It can be effective anywhere in a reservoir in central Russia, where everything happens before our eyes. For the Far East, these things are unsuitable, as they are uncontrollable. I can catch as many fish as I want and sell around the corner, and no one will see how much I caught and what I caught with — a net or a fishing rod.
- The fish exchange, which was created on the site of the Sberbank AST and has already earned. Does the exchange work in the direction you intended? All turns out?
“When the trading began, a whole series of questions came up that we would never have known about until we opened this“ door ”. The subject was much more complicated, more interesting and more promising.
- Suggestions and a range of offers are growing?
- On October 11, on the 16 exchange, sellers put up 85 lots of their goods for a total of 126 million rubles.
When we talk about stock trading, there is a certain complex for Sakhalin. The first part is virtual, this is a trading electronic platform. The second part is physical or commodity. Our port of Korsakov is a logistics center, whose functions include the accumulation and display of goods in the virtual part.
- And why did they choose Korsakov?
"There has always been a large-tonnage fleet." In the port water depths allow to receive and handle large vessels, there are berths. A small reconstruction of the entire port complex is required.
- Is trading on the stock exchange going up or down?
- On the rise. But there is a mechanism that we are now running around, and in the coming days the auctions will go down.
- So there will be two options?
- There is a product that is now on the rise. For example, the red fish, which today is not enough in the market. But there is a commodity that is not very much in demand. We put it up, no one takes it, we cut prices. Depending on the desire of the seller: it can reduce, can raise prices, can stop the auction.
- You said that there will be several stages of the exchange project. The first stage you launched. When and on what will it end? What will happen in the second stage?
The term "exchange" used in relation to the project of the Savings Bank and the Government of the Sakhalin region is nothing more than a "figure of speech"
It designates the commodity distribution network created by us from the centers of fishing to the centers of consumption. Initially, we planned to limit ourselves to the Sberbank auction site and the logistic structure in Korsakov. However, the first weeks of the project showed that this was not even half the battle.
It turned out that the system of circulation of aquatic biological resources in our country is not administered. Nobody controls it. Hence a large number of intermediaries. And the criminal property. Firms of the one-day period eliminate VAT and launder signs of counterfeit and IUU fishing. Another point, the Asian and European markets are saturated with banking and products and state preferences. At us their obvious lack.
- What does it mean?
This means that with an equal market price, the fisherman gets a lot of income there.
- Abroad it is, is and works, but with us?
- Of course it works. At us simply nobody tried to put this task in such key. We created a trading platform, it works steadily with logistics and all the rest. At one of the last meetings, we discussed the first results and identified some remarkable moments, which we lack.
We have many words, as I have already given an example with the law on fishing, but there is no object behind these words.
A working group has now been established, which is chaired by the co-chairs: Sagaydak S.A. and Kozhemyako ON The main objective of which is the development of incentive measures for fishermen and buyers.
In addition, it turned out that we have a whole bunch of intermediaries who reduced both the profitability and productivity of our companies and the margin of the same retail. Another point is that we speak different languages with representatives of retail. They, for example, tell us that they do not know what a trepang is, what a rape is. There is a lack of understanding of retail and our manufacturers - who and what they want.
Why is there such a variety of products in Japan in the fish market, but we do not have on Sakhalin? This variety of fish can be provided only by the population, and not by big business. In the system of our business, even the smallest, random, where everything is due to the receipt of paper, I will not go to the market with a bucket of fish. Why? I did not do anything, but I already owe everything. Therefore, we followed the path of the patent system with small-scale production.
- Is the patent expensive?
- While we do it for free. We call the patent a voucher with the right of sale. What the fishermen brought to the market in buckets is an exclusive, at this a small restaurant can be made. Let people make money on this. The people came to the fish market and chose the fish products they needed. At the same time, we need to show this fish market on the electronic platform so that people can see on the exchange trades online, what we sell and what they would like to buy through electronic bidding. That is, there will be electronic trading and a fish market on Sakhalin.
- Can foreigners buy fish at electronic trading?
- At the auction site, there is no right of electronic signature for foreign participants. Therefore, at the first stage, we are negotiating the creation of brokerage services, so that someone here can make transactions on behalf of a foreign company. It is necessary to pass this stage, perhaps, then we will come out with the initiative to introduce some initiatives into the legislation.
While the current stage of our fish stock exchange - is very large. The word "Sakhalin" in this project, I think, will be mentioned for a long time. But as the project develops, Sakhalin in it will be presented as one of the regions, as we are not the first in the country for catching fish and producing fish products.
- That is, Sakhalin does not claim the laurels of the championship. Let the fish market only work?
- The most important thing is that this tool is very necessary for our fishermen!
Sakhalin Region is the initiator of the exchange platform that we need. There is no need for everyone to become pioneers, it is not expensive. We are working on a “pilot project”. There is a stock exchange, but there is a “mirror” of the site, which can be made in Kamchatka, in Tatarstan and in other regions where it is necessary. We are open to everyone and all island grounds.
- You did not try to transfer the idea of the exchange from Japan or South Korea using the “tracing paper”? Or do you need to go this way yourself?
- Logistics, which is worked out in these countries - we do not have it. We do not have enough volumes of transportation, volumes of storage, moreover, a certain temperature - also much more. We need to create all this. Why do we say that the sphere of fish and seafood is still poorly administered.
The website of the stock exchange will soon have a message board where any company can go and see what and who it can buy or sell, at what price, how to deliver. There will also be a list of companies that are ready to provide delivery services, confirm the quality of products and so on. This is a large layer, which now must be created, corrected, completed.
- What do you think you need to do to understand shipbuilding?
- Without the fleet to catch the same pollock impossible. The state must make a decision. We must deal with the terminology. If we say that we want to raise shipbuilding at the expense of 20% FBG catch quotas, then this thing is absolutely unreal. These 20% quotas are an incentive to those who build ships and nothing more. But with this money you will not create a shipbuilding industry. And so the question no one puts. The question is about stimulating things. And attracting investment in the shipbuilding industry is a separate project.
We are now selling FBI to Korea, China, not only to buy ships there or repair them there. We take her there too because we do not have the necessary infrastructure.
- What, in your opinion, needs to be done at the federal level, so that civil shipbuilding develops?
- The most important thing is to take the first step. And there will be revealed a circle of people, a list of questions that must be taken and solved. Constantly saying that we want to raise shipbuilding and do this and that - talking about nothing. We must take the first step.
- Some experts say that selling fish today abroad and within the country is equally advantageous. This is true? Or is this cunning?
- The country will not live if it does not have an external influx. For the same sea urchin or crab, pollock in foreign markets are paid more. We live in a market economy: buy - cheaper, sell - more expensive. Well, let our enterprises earn on this, if they give more! If we have fulfilled the basic industrial task, we have provided our own population with affordable and high-quality products. Given that for the economy of coastal areas it is more useful when the goods are sold on the territory of the country.
- How interesting is the regime of advanced development areas (TOR) to the fish industry?
- In my opinion, a fishing TOP is needed - a pilot project, which must be run-in. From my point of view, what we are doing now on the projects for the development of fisheries and aquaculture, "Available fish", for the creation of logistic schemes, on the stock exchange can be fully realized within the framework of such a "pilot". Minimal changes in by-laws are required. In this case, the economy is really considered.