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Year under the sign of "hectare"

The curator of the social bloc of the Ministry of Economic Development Sergey Kachaev summarizes the interim results of the work

Like any revolutionary mechanism, the free provision of the Far Eastern Hectare has already given the first results for the development of the Far East, but is being improved in non-stop mode: the task of the authorities is to help people as much as possible to develop as much land as possible, says Deputy Head of the Ministry of Eastern and Eastern Development It is divided into many subtasks. At the same time, the “hectare” list of measures for the development of the infrastructure of the macroregion is far from being limited. At the expense of what, the authorities are still hoping to stop the migration outflow from the Far East, how the legislation needs to be refined, why the regions need new settlements, comprehensive development plans, investors in the “social sphere” “growth points” in exchange for benefits and Old Believers - in an interview specifically for EastRussia .

Year under the sign of "hectare"
Photo: TASS Bank of Russia
- Sergey Valerievich, the 2017 year in the Far East passes under the flag of "hectare". Since February, the option has become available to all Russians, and on the first Far Eastern hectares, which were taken a year ago, the first harvest has already matured. With what results do you finish the year?
- The total number of applications for the Far Eastern hectare is approaching the 105-thousandth milestone. Of these, more than 31 thousand applications have been granted, citizens have received land and started to develop them. About 8 thousand applications have already been approved by authorized bodies, and in the next month and a half, these sites will also be provided to citizens. So we expect that by the New Year about 40 thousand land plots will be physically used by citizens.

- The remaining 60 thousand are canceled applications, refusals and those that are at different stages of consideration, right? Do citizens get many failures?
- Right. In August, amendments to the legislation were adopted, which significantly adjusted the process of approving citizens' applications. Now, even if the declared land plot is superimposed on another, this is not a reason for refusal, but an obligation to offer the citizen options for changing the boundaries or changing the location of the plot. Plus, the authorized body can offer a citizen a choice of those plots that have already been registered in the cadastre. Our goal is to bring rejections to zero. I also want to note that a refusal is the right to apply again, this time for another site. Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation - Plenipotentiary of the President of the Russian Federation in the Far Eastern Federal District Yuri Trutnev has said more than once that it is necessary to satisfy every application for a Far Eastern hectare, be it individual or collective, but special attention should be paid to working with collective applications, with places of compact location such sites.

I will add that the percentage of refusals will continue to decline, as relevant information on the borders of the sites, on the existing real estate objects and so on is entered into the federal system.
- What lands are most popular among citizens?
- As expected, the greatest demand is for the lands of Primorsky Krai, more than 41 thousands of applications have been submitted for them. The most popular areas are those located on the coast: Shkotovsky and Khasansky districts. The Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is in the second place by the number of applications, there are more than 18 there thousands of citizens expressed a desire to receive land. In third place - the Khabarovsk Territory, 15 thousands of applications. By the way, by the number of issued “hectares" the Khabarovsk Territory is the leader: here the citizens have already received more than 7 thousand sites for use.
- How do you assess these results?
- For a year and 5 months of project implementation, we have generally learned how to provide sites, I recall that for our country this is a completely new mechanism. We also solved quite a lot of organizational, technological problems that were. They debugged the processes, trained the staff of the authorized bodies. A number of barriers that hampered the process were eliminated in August through an amendment to the law, adopting the necessary amendments. Many of these amendments were "prompted" by the residents themselves, who applied for "Far Eastern hectares".
But the success of the project depends not only on the fact of providing the site at the request of a citizen. Our main goal is to make people master the land, build on it, develop business and earn. In the near future, we face several tasks that we must solve. The first is to increase the supply of land by reducing those territories that are now closed to provide land. This is one of the important factors for increasing the possibilities of choice. Unfortunately, they are now open to provide 29-30% of the territory of the Far East. 70% of the territory is a "gray" zone. These are lands that, for the time being, can not be issued by law, for example, the land of the Ministry of Defense.

The second thing that needs to be done is to help citizens choose land plots. We expect with the help of the federal information system and a targeted advertising campaign to help citizens choose land plots where they would like to take them. In the information system should appear those infrastructure facilities that already exist, and those that are planned for construction. It will be necessary to help citizens in determining the uses of land. In particular - to disclose the types of permitted use of neighboring areas, so that people can focus, including on their future neighbors. Citizens should not see "pictures" in the federal information system, but the most complete information about the territory in which they chose, in which they want to live and work.
The third task is to reduce the technology of issuing land to the applicant, speeding up the examination of the application and provision of plots. Now these terms are on average 45 days - with the norm in 30 days. It is necessary to bring them to the normative terms, and in the future - to reduce. Here, too, a lot of work has been done: the staff of authorized bodies passed training courses, plus those changes in the law, which were adopted in August, allow the process to be significantly optimized.
Finally, the fourth, key task - we must help citizens in the development of sites. And for this it is necessary to form a set of measures to support citizens. Many measures are already in place, but they must be more carefully adapted to the recipients of the Far Eastern hectare. In addition, it is necessary to provide for federal measures to create engineering and transport infrastructure in the areas of the largest concentrations of land in the Far East. And also to form credit products and tell them about the recipients of Far Eastern hectares. 

- You noted that now only 29-30% of the territory of the Far East is available to select sites. And how do you think this figure should grow as the “gray” zones reduce?
- If you look at the regions, the spread is very large. In the Jewish Autonomous Region, 39% of the territory is “closed” and 83% in the Primorye Territory. We estimate that without changes to the law, and by optimizing the gray areas, checking the validity of their establishment by authorized bodies, we can increase the available territory up to 35%, and this will already be the result.Further expansion will be possible only through changes to the law on the Far Eastern hectare, by excluding from it individual grounds for establishing “gray” zones. And we are also considering this option.
- One of the problems that was announced at the start of the project - the Far East has been poorly studied, many land plots (and these are hundreds of thousands of hectares) are not documented and not entered in the register. In your estimation, how much are the maps improving, detailed?
- The cartographic basis used in the public cadastral map (it is the basis of the FIS of the Far Eastern hectare) - dates back to the beginning of the 2000-ies. During this time, much has changed on this territory, new facilities have appeared, new land plots have been registered. To solve this problem, we are preparing proposals for the government to update the cartographic material in the entire Far East. In addition, before 1 January 2018, all regions conduct an inventory of previously registered land plots. They apply those lands for which there are rights, but whose boundaries are not displayed on the public cadastral map. If we do this by the beginning of the year, then the percentages of 70-80% of failures related to the overlapping of sites on each other will go away.
- One of the major land owners in the Far East is the Ministry of Defense. Are colleagues somehow ready to share “hectares”?
- As for the Ministry of Defense, this department carried out a very large work, which lasted for 8-9 months. All the territories belonging to the Ministry have been established, their borders have been confirmed by documents, the information has been fully entered into the system. Since May, there are no questions to those territories that are assigned to the Ministry of Defense.
- In February, the Kuril Islands were completely excluded from the system, the media said that the initiative belonged to the Defense Ministry. Will this decision be revised?
- According to the Kuriles, the Ministry of Defense offered a number of settlements where it is allowed to take land. But the bulk of the island's territory will be closed - and the reason is not in the Ministry of Defense. A significant part of the Kuriles is classified as specially protected natural areas, and a part of the land plots is excluded, since it is located in the zone of mineral deposits. But there are places for choosing land.
- Do the “New settlements” appear in the public reporting of the Ministry of Eastern Development for the project of the Far Eastern hectare? What it is?
- Now in the Far East at the expense of issued "hectares" it is planned to expand 14 existing settlements and create three new ones: one in the Khabarovsk Territory and two in the Sakhalin region. There are reasons to believe that regulatory decisions to create these new settlements will be taken by the end of this year.
- So, these new settlements are a clean field?
- Bye yes. But so far.
- And everything can turn out there?
- Localities easier to develop. A separate municipality is being created in which its own municipal authority can be created with powers. It is easier for such an education to attract both regional and federal investments to create the necessary infrastructure. In addition, there are regulatory requirements for the locality - for example, there must be a fire station, a medical assistant, a school — all these requirements must be met. 

- Does the initiative come from citizens?
- Yes. It is impossible to force citizens to implant these initiatives from above - they will not take root. Only if people want to live and work here in this place, are ready to invest some money in the development of a settlement, are ready to participate in self-government - only then are settlements viable. But if such an initiative has appeared - we actively assist in passing the procedures, in a phased receipt of all necessary approvals. And, naturally, we plan for regions to help and co-finance the creation of infrastructure for new settlements, as well as for the expansion of existing ones.
- Tell me, how much are the citizens willing to invest? Is it possible to somehow evaluate the activity, for example, through loans issued, support provided?
- By the current moment, some support measures have been received by more than a thousand people, users of land plots. More precisely - 1065 people, for a total of almost 150 million rubles. Specialized credit product "Mail Bank" is effective since May, registered 860 calls, of which more than 200 - has already been approved.
- "Mail Bank" gives commodity loans?
- The loan product that this bank gives has a fairly good prospect. In essence, this is a loan of up to 600 thousand rubles, with the help of which specific goods and services are paid. In this case, the minimum requirements are imposed on the borrower, and the rate for a consumer loan is very low. The main task of Pochta Bank now is to form a network of those companies that sell goods and provide services to recipients of Far Eastern hectares. For a quality effect, you need a large, extensive network of suppliers. Regional administrations together with business associations actively participate in the formation of such a network: they collect initiatives from entrepreneurs. “Mail Bank”, in turn, includes these suppliers in the circle of organizations whose goods or services can be purchased on credit.
- Will specialized financial products for business be formed?
- Yes, they are already being formed. At the beginning of October, SME Bank prepared a specialized loan product for small and medium-sized businesses, which operates on the Far East hectare. Within the framework of the product, money is provided for both working capital and investments in fixed assets. The maximum rate is 10,6%, and the average is 9,5-9,9%. The rates are very reasonable compared to the bank rates that are available for small and medium-sized businesses in conventional commercial banks. Until the end of the year, the limit for this product is 100 million rubles. Our task together with JSC "Corporation" SME "and" SME Bank "is to inform citizens as much as possible about this opportunity.
- Limit 100 million in total, or one application?
- Since this is a pilot project, and there are less than two months left until the end of the year, 100 million rubles is the total limit for this product. After these funds are issued, we will assess the demand and continue working on this loan product.
Also, as demand develops from the hectare recipients, we will involve the Far East Development Fund and its program for lending to small and medium-sized businesses in partnership with Sberbank. Here now the supply of credit resources is greater than the demand itself. Our task is to inform as much as possible, to show the profitability of using credit resources for developing the Far Eastern hectare. In the case, if necessary - to modernize loan products, adapt to the needs of the business, we are also ready to do it.
- One of the initiatives aimed at supporting small and medium-sized businesses on hectares is the development of cooperation. How do you see the cooperative movement in the Far East?
- Now we are actively working on this direction. The main task is to understand how this form of organization of activities can be applied to the recipients of the Far Eastern hectare. There are initiatives of a number of cooperatives that are ready to include in their members members of the Far Eastern hectare, and involve them in their activities. The benefit is fairly obvious: to reduce the costs of development of plots, to concentrate the produced products, and to organize sales.
- If it's not a secret who exactly comes out with initiatives?
- We are conducting a dialogue with the Tsentrosoyuz - this organization heads the system of consumer cooperation in Russia. We hope that our colleagues will propose a pilot project in the Far East. There are also initiatives from the well-known farm network "Lavka-Lavka", from the Far East: there are strong cooperative movements in Yakutia and in the Khabarovsk Territory.
- Around the hectare developed many topics, one of them - the return of the Old Believers. How are these topics related?
- The return of the Old Believers is not directly connected, of course, with the project of the Far Eastern hectare. This is a separate large area. And here our task is to create conditions for their normal life and their adaptation in their homeland. Now another group of Old Believers from South America is planning to move to Primorye, land plots for new residents in Primorye have already been selected - these are Krasnoarmeysky and Pozharsky districts.
At the same time, 100% of the Old Believers moved show interest in obtaining a Far Eastern hectare. Accordingly, we are now preparing amendments to the law on the Far Eastern hectare and foresee the possibility of obtaining land plots by our compatriots who move to Russia for permanent residence. President Vladimir Putin set such a task following the meeting of the Presidium of the State Council. I want to emphasize that this will be an unprecedented decision.
- Old Believers are considered compatriots?
- Yes. All move according to the resettlement program of compatriots.
- But after all they left at different times - during the Soviet period, during the revolution and before it?
- Right. The last wave of emigration was in the 50-ies of the XX century. From Primorye, the Old Believers left for South America. But the program of resettlement of compatriots applies to everyone who belongs to our cultural identity, speaks Russian, considers himself a Russian and wants to move. These people, as well as their family members, have the opportunity to move to Russia for permanent residence.
- Do you communicate in Russian with those who want to return?
- They all speak Russian. The Old Believers have an interesting dialect - the father, for example, is called aunt. One can feel how they carefully cherish the language and traditions. These are people who are vaccinated for assimilation with other cultures, who through their faith have preserved their identity. They feel the connection with Russia even more sharply, they want to return. For them, Russia is their home, they even told me that God hears and sees them better here, so they want to return.
- And who is the Old Believers, as they say now, the person making the decision? Who is more dependent on the choice and implementation of intentions?
- This is the elder, the head of the community.
- What is the average age of the elders? They were born here, or already in exile?
- The age of those elders with whom I spoke directly - in the Amur region and in Primorye Territory - somewhere 50 years. Active, practical, very economic people. They move family, and families - for 10-15 people, three to four generations. Mostly they are engaged in agriculture and are ready to immediately launch production in a new territory. What's important is that they immediately come with their equipment, and they have savings. Families immediately need large enough allotments of agricultural land for processing. They are ready to invest in them.
- Are they buying or renting land?
- In general, this is a lease, and then, in accordance with Russian law, after a certain period of time, the land can be redeemed.
- How many families of Old Believers have already moved to the Far East?
- 18 families, this is 135 people. The process continues, the representatives of the communities come to get acquainted, assess opportunities on the spot, and see the land. We expect that many after this will decide on the move.
- Hectare is one of the key measures that is designed to consolidate the local population in the Far East and attract new residents from central Russia and abroad. At the same time, statistics show that the migration outflow continues. You are not the first year engaged in this topic, constantly working with statistics, and with sociology. How realistic are the reasons that people leave the region?
- The economy of the Far East in 2016 year (for 2017 year of statistics is not yet) grew by 1,8 times to the level of 1996 year. The migration outflow compared to the end of the 90-ies decreased four-fold, but, unfortunately, did not stop. In August, together with VTsIOM, we completed another survey of the population of the Far East. This survey once again showed those reasons that are called to encourage people to leave the region. The main reasons are four. In the first place - people do not like the development of infrastructure. Social, transport, the quality of the urban environment. In second place - discontent with the level of salaries in the region. In third place is the high cost of living, high prices for products and services. And the fourth common cause is an unfavorable climate. These four reasons form the moods that you are asking about. By regions, citizens have different assessments of these factors, but they are everywhere in the "top".
"Well, with a climate, let's say, it's useless to fight."
- We see two key tasks, the solution of which will help reduce migratory moods, reduce, and subsequently stop the outflow. First, it is job creation and pay rise. Secondly, the development of the social sphere. As to the solution of the first task, much has already been done, including using new mechanisms for the priority development of the Far East - I mean the economic regimes of the advanced development territories, the Free Port of Vladivostok, etc. Thanks to initiatives to implement investment projects worth more than 3 trillion rubles, new jobs have been created and will be created. Before 2020, more than 60 thousand will appear; up to 2025, more than one hundred thousand. 
- But many investments are still only at the stage of applications, but they are leaving now.
- Trends in population outflows are not formed now; they have been forming over the last 20 years. For a year or two or three, these trends are very difficult to reverse. If citizens say that the reasons are what I called, then our main answer is the elimination of these reasons - the creation of new jobs with higher wages, an increase in economic density in the territory of the Far East. There will be more work - people will see prospects, the opportunity to work and earn in the territory of the Far East. The emergence of 60 thousands of new jobs over the coming years with the current population of the Far East is a very serious job offer on the labor market. I will say more - the reserve of labor in the Far East is limited, it is not enough to provide new jobs.
- And how many jobs will be created within the framework of the new mechanisms for the development of the Far East in the coming years?
- By 2025, 114,5 thousand jobs will be created. Now the bank of vacancies, operated by the Agency for Human Capital Development in the Far East, includes 9 thousand offers. At the same time, from 2016 to the present day, the ARCHC has already employed more than 8,5 thousand people.

- This is local shots? Or those who moved?
- Both those, and those, but 85% fall on the Far East.

- How willingly people move if they get a good job offer?
- Questions with the move are still enough. Now, for the most part, the cost of moving lies either on the shoulders of a citizen or an employer. The existing program "Labor Mobility", unfortunately, does not fully work, and the number of people who move to the Far East within the framework of this program does not satisfy us. Now, as part of the President's instructions on the results of the WEF, we must make this program more accessible, remove those restrictions that exist there, then there will be a real working mechanism for financing the migration of citizens. Now we are working on this issue.
- You are talking about 9 thousands of vacancies in the bank ARCHK. Is there any understanding how far they can be occupied precisely by the Far East? And how popular are people from other parts of the country today?
- If we compare quantitatively - maybe today there is a balance between demand and supply in the labor market of the Far East. But there is a structural imbalance. Demand from business to some specialties and competencies, and proposals are in completely different areas. For example, shipbuilding requires certain competencies and qualifications, which are not enough in the Far East. To meet this demand, we must retrain, upgrade the skills of those people who live in the Far East. And in parallel to search for specialists in the country.
- Does the ARCHC look for employees in the social sphere?
- Yes, there is such an experience. Worked on the applications of the regions, the Jewish Autonomous Region and in the Amur Region. Basically, it was the demand for medical workers.
- The second task you mentioned is the development of the social sphere. What are the approaches here?
- There is an obvious fact - we understand that resources for solving all the problems of the social sphere in the entire Far East are difficult to find at once. Therefore, we concentrate our efforts on the advanced development of economic growth centers, that is, those points where investment projects are being implemented, new jobs are being created, where there are certain prospects. Those points that become the center of attraction for the population. Accordingly, in these points it is necessary to change the social infrastructure in the first place.
- Are limited resources somehow measurable? And what sources do you see for such point effects? 
- Here we have several mechanisms. The first mechanism is special sections in state programs. These are the programs of the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Culture and other departments. Work is underway, specific facilities in these special facilities are included, financing for them is determined. The second source is regional programs. We are trying to sharpen the resources that the regions have, to the problems that are most acute. In addition, we in the government are looking for additional sources to finance the development of the social sphere of the Far East. In the draft budget, this money is pledged in the amount of 35 billion rubles for 2018 year. 
- There was an interesting initiative to create a new instrument - so that investors who invested their money in social infrastructure, then were exempted from taxes on the appropriate amount.
- According to the results of the III WEF, the president gave a corresponding instruction. The mechanism is developed together with the Ministry of Finance. This is a significant source: a number of investors have already announced their readiness to build social infrastructure in the places where they implement their investment projects, provided that these expenses will be compensated for by tax concessions. The mechanism can be implemented already in 2019 year.
- At VEF sounded another management innovation - the so-called integrated plans for the development of regions. What it is?
- This is really quite a new topic. It is a development of the practice of applying integrated urban development plans. Let me remind you that for the first time such a plan was formed according to Komsomolsk-on-Amur in 2016. There were no such decisions in the field of public administration in recent years. We developed the industry, and here we decided to focus on the problems of a particular city. In Komsomolsk-on-Amur, as part of the plan, 27 new urban infrastructure facilities will be created for 63 billion rubles. A similar plan, approved by the government in the current year for the city of Svobodny of the Amur Region, provides for the construction of 6 objects. Understanding that the integrated plan for a particular territory allows us to concentrate resources, the responsibility of regional and federal bodies, to coordinate activities in various areas - we transfer this approach to the level of development of entire regions.
"Do these plans already exist?"
- Comprehensive regional development plans must be approved by February 1 2018. Now there will be a procedure for the regions to protect these complex plans, their coordination with the federal authorities.
- How are they formed?
- Those projects, facilities and activities that have confirmed sources of financing, both from the state and from private investors, will be included in the integrated plan. It is necessary to take a responsible approach to the formation of plans, so that they do not have fiction. Only what is necessary for development, and what money is for. Priorities must be set. In fact, these complex plans should clearly and clearly reflect all the changes that are taking place in the region.
We expect that these plans will become a guide for citizens, for business. For citizens - in terms of employment prospects, attractive places to stay, expectations from the level of infrastructure development. For business, a comprehensive plan is a navigator for investment. The entrepreneur must see where the priorities of the state in a particular territory. And for public authorities, a comprehensive plan is the setting of long-term goals, priorities, personalization of responsibility - so that it is clear who is responsible for what on a particular territory.
- Is it connected with the program of spatial development of the Russian Federation?
- The strategy of spatial development of the Russian Federation is still in the initial stages of development. I think that even for the most part, this strategy will be formed on the basis of the plans that we are now formulating.
- That is, a comprehensive regional development plan is primarily an indicator, a measure of control and a lobbying tool for attracting new resources to the territory?
- Yes, that's right.
- Will the integrated plan be a binding document?
- We want and we will do everything to make it a binding document. It must oblige both the region and the federal center to focus on the development of the territory.
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