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Where do the beluga live?

Primorsky Oceanarium: sea canaries, secrets and surprise for spectators

Where do the beluga live?

About why the construction of the future tourist locomotive is being delayed, how it lives in the dolphin enclosures, what prevents the sea inhabitants from the sea canaries and whether it is true that animals in temporary cages perish from bullying, the scientific curator of the project, the director of the Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Andrei Adrianov.

«The scientific and educational complex "Primorsky Oceanarium" as an institution was established in 2011 year to begin to deal with problems related to the aquarium - the accumulation of animals, their adaptation, training, - says Adrianov. "Simultaneously, the personnel train, learn to interact with animals and provide for their needs."

We are sitting at a long table in the office at the Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, where the academician kindly invited me to a conversation. In the open window that opens onto the frozen Amur Bay, the sun shines brightly. Andrei Adrianov talks about who and how he now lives in the aquarium. According to him, 11 beluga, 3 Dolphin Afalina, 2 sea lion, 3 walrus, 2 seals, 4 fur seals live in the scientific and adaptive building, which has been operating for several years already, and the account of fish and invertebrates goes to hundreds.

"Despite the fact that the main building is not yet built and we do not transfer animals to its huge tanks and aquariums, they are kept in fairly good conditions," he says. - This is a scientific and adaptive building, which is completely ready and has been functioning for several years. There is an infrastructure for the maintenance of fish and temporary maintenance of marine mammals and aviaries in the Bay of Paris, directly opposite the oceanarium. Three enclosures 12 at 12 meters, one - 24 at 12 meters, one - 35 at 12 meters. 11 belugas live in the same open-air cage, because winter, it's so much more fun for them. These animals can be kept in such conditions, moreover, these conditions are optimal for them: our Arctic white whales, beluga whales, live in ice. "

Talking about how white whales play in cages and require the attention of trainers, Adrianov smiles. He reports that belugas are called sea canaries because of the well-developed sound communication of these animals, they constantly communicate. According to him, when the white whales had just been brought to the open enclosures in Paris Bay, complaints of local residents (“Who had never been there”, ”Adrianov chuckles) about loud animal cries immediately fell down. In fact, sea canaries communicate in this way if they are healthy, active and playful.

“Animals that are contained in the aquarium, collected, found, picked up in natural conditions. And many of them would inevitably have died. The same sea lions. They were picked up by dying puppies on a rookery when the adults had already left. This goner came out, and now he has turned into a boy weighing 350 kilograms, who will grow into an uncle weighing one and a half tons. Leo managed to save. Two small walruses saved. But the otter was not saved, ”the academician says sadly.

About death and salvation

Andrei Adrianov talks about the fate of the sea otter or (sea otter, sea otter), who was found in the coastal waters of Avachinskaya Bay in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. He spent a month swimming in coastal and domestic sewage, he ate what he had, he was fed by local residents.

“Sea otters are very sensitive to the purity of the water, because unlike a seal, which has subcutaneous fat, sea otte warms only the skin, only the fur,” says Adrianov. - Fur is the most dense and warm in the animal world, but you can live with it only in clear water. If it is damaged, it loses its ability to isolate and protect the sea a from cold, and the animal freezes. Now sea otters live in the south of Kamchatka, Cape Lopatka, and in the Kuril Islands, there is pure water. We cannot say how the sea rye appeared at the coastline in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Maybe someone caught him, then let him out, he is unlikely to get there himself, ”the academician suggests.

According to him, due to the fact that the calanan had been feeding in domestic sewage for a month, he became ill with enteritis - he could not be cured. At another time, a young beluga died. It turned out that she had a congenital lung defect. In nature, such an animal dies very early, and in the aquarium the beluga was kept in hothouse conditions and lived longer.

"A very difficult moment is the death of a dolphin, also from a disease. The dolphins sit in pairs, and one pair received an infectious disease, the carrier of which could be a man. Two animals got sick, but only one could be saved. In one aquarium from this disease dozens of animals were killed, but usually it is not advertised. In this case, only one dolphin died, but one managed to be cured, "the academician said.

Veterinary service, according to him, works really good in the aquarium. Three specialists are constantly working here, and if necessary they contact colleagues from other countries. "It was like that when here in the operating room tusks were removed from the walruses," the academician recalls. - This is necessary when keeping in captivity, so that the animal does not injure them on hard surfaces, this is a worldwide practice. With these operations in the world, a rather large mortality rate, as walruses are very difficult to get out of anesthesia. However, these operations are necessary. And our walruses transferred these operations, "the source said with pride.

"In the spring, electricity was cut off. In the evening there was only a shift. People gathered, began to transplant the carangs, which need to continuously move in a circle, while there must be strong blowers that create this current, aeration of water. And the electricity went out. Yes, some of the fish died. But enough many despite everything was saved, "- sums up Adrianov.

He emphasizes that animals died not instantly and massively, according to rumor, but at different times during the functioning of the scientific and adaptive corps and for natural reasons. According to him, tragic cases are inevitable. "In nature, someone is always dying from something. And we want everyone to live always. Unfortunately, this is impossible, "the interlocutor says.

About anonymous letters

The above facts about the death of animals became public after the local news agencies published an anonymous letter, allegedly signed by employees of the oceanarium. It said that animals are massively dying from bullying and poor conditions. Not indifferent citizens made a petition to the president with a request to understand what is happening and improve the living conditions of animals.

"An anonymous letter, in particular, says that animals are kept in dirty water, the pH of which is equal to 1. It's the acidity of the gastric juice, "Adrianov grins. "The animals would be digested in such water." Yes, there are problems, failures in the life support system, but they are immediately eliminated. The collective is already sufficiently trained. There were no such collectives in our country. "

According to him, the level of veterinary service in this institution is high enough to contain animals. For example, in beluga whales every two weeks, blood is accurately drawn from the tail, their physiological state is tracked by behavior, appetite, and clinical blood tests. In watercourses, water samples are regularly taken for hydrochemical and microbiological analysis.

In addition, there is a veterinary laboratory in the aquarium that allows you to perform a clinical analysis of body fluids, there is a device for ultrasound diagnostics and x-rays.

Adrianov tells that the information closure of an object gives rise to information hunger for both the public and journalists, on the fertile soil of which anonymous letters and all sorts of rumors fall. In the absence of other information, they form a persistent negative attitude towards the aquarium, the academician is sure.

"We are now unable to raise this curtain, which closes information from the public about this most interesting object," the academician said. "Partly because the existing building is actually on site, and it's not safe to conduct excursions around it." According to him, one of these days an environmental prosecutor's office came to the site with experts from independent organizations. They took water samples from all the tanks, looked at the animals and on the coaches. It is expected that the results of the examination will be ready in the near future.

Surprise for the audience

Andrei Adrianov outlined in several strokes what awaits the audience in the grandiose oceanarium on Russky Island.

"The audience will be able to look at the show in the dolphinarium - on warm water animals, under a warm winter roof - and on open water. It is very near, on the water to pass several hundred meters. For this, giant pontoons with a deck are bought, hundreds of people can stand on them. In most very large oceanariums, such large tanks are located in the open air. There is practically no roof under the roof. We have very good conditions, but will be even better, "the scientist is sure.

According to him, the dolphinarium of the main building is designed for 14,5 thousand tons of water, and the giant arena, where the animals will perform, is 800 square meters of water depth 9,5 meter. With this arena, tanks are connected, where individually, in separate "apartments", the bottlenose dolphins, beluga whales, killer whales will live. Tonnage in terms of 1 animal corresponds to all international norms and standards. The conditions will certainly be the best in the country and one of the best in the world, the academician believes.

"The body of the oceanarium is made in the form of a wave that throws a shell on the shore," the interlocutor opens the secret. - There are no right angles, this is a unique, recognizable building, the first one seen by ocean ships from the Ussuri Bay going to the raid in the Bosporus East Pass. In the aquarium, films created with computer graphics will be broadcast on special screens. A giant life-size whale will be floating under the ceiling, very similar to a real animal. It will create the feeling that a real whale is floating above you. "

The aquarium is planned to be completed by the end of 2015 of the year - this is possible if the new general contractor, who came to the construction site in February, takes up the job without delay. Tickets are planned to be made available to the public, and the number of animals will be regularly increased. Someone will catch, and someone to buy, including abroad.


The total area of ​​the aquarium will be 35 thousand square meters. There will be expositions and scientific laboratories. In addition, the Primorsky Aquarium complex of buildings includes entrance and park zones, a scientific adaptation building, a zone of engineering structures and the protection of historical and cultural monuments (defenses of the island). In the left wing of the aquarium there is a main tank with a 75-meter underwater tunnel for visitors. In the east there is a dolphinarium with an arena and stands for spectators. The total volume of water in the aquarium is almost 10 thousand cubic meters. In the main building, 500 aquariums will be installed for 18 thousands of fish and mammal species.

The discovery of the object was postponed several times. Initially, it was claimed that it would be handed over to the APN summit of 2012. Then the opening date was moved to the second half of 2013 year. It was alleged that by the end of October 2013 construction was completed at 80%, but it is still necessary to mount engineering equipment to support the life of marine animals. The last expected date of the object's opening was called autumn of 2014 year.

Last November, Oleg Shishov, the main owner and general director of NPO Mostovik, the general contractor for the construction of the facility, was detained in Moscow and placed under house arrest, charged with fraud, and a day later the Directorate for Construction and Reconstruction of The Arbitration Court of Omsk Region is a claim for termination of the contract with “Mostovik” for the construction of an aquarium. According to investigators, in 2010-2014, Shishov, together with the head of the Directorate for Construction in the Far Eastern Federal District, Andrei Poplavsky and others, kidnapped about 2 billion rubles allocated from the budget for the construction of an oceanarium and did not ensure the construction of the facility on time. The investigation believes that Poplavsky is also involved in the theft of more than 40 million rubles allocated for the construction of the same object.