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Another special force
The "May decree" of the president in the east of the country will be extremely difficult to fulfill
Amazing dissonance with optimistic statements by the authorities on improving the business environment in the Far East created the last meeting of the government commission for the development of the macro region under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, held in Kamchatka. It was only officials who spoke about the achievement of the goals of the new "May decree" of Vladimir Putin, which, as we know, set ambitious goals for the whole of Russia for the next six years as the Far East was immediately relegated to the laggard indicators. What special measures for the development of the Far East asked the Prime Minister for the Prime Minister to understand EastRussia.
“For the next six years, we face very serious development tasks. They are determined by the President's May Decree No. 204 and other program documents. And all the set national benchmarks in the economy and social sphere must be achieved, including in the Far East. I understand that this task is more difficult than in many other regions of our country. Here we will have to make considerable efforts. Of course, the main goal is to eliminate the backlog of the Far East in living standards, social development from the average Russian. If there are normal hospitals, schools, roads, housing, work, of course, conditions for business, then people are more willing to go to this unique macro-region, "said the prime minister.
The Presidential Decree # 204, recall, set the Russian government the task of achieving several indicators by the year 2024. Among them - to ensure sustainable natural population growth and increase life expectancy up to 78 years, to ensure a steady increase in real incomes of citizens, as well as to raise the level of pensions above the level of inflation, to halve the level of poverty. At least 5 million Russian families should annually "improve housing conditions." Another goal is to accelerate Russia's technological development, increase the number of organizations that carry out technological innovations to 50% of their total number, and ensure the accelerated introduction of digital technologies in the economy and social sphere. Russia should enter the top 5 of the world's largest economies, maintaining stability (inflation no more than 4%) and creating export sectors in the basic industries - in manufacturing and agro-industrial complex above all.
Now in the Far East, favorable conditions for investment have been created - the modes of advanced development territories and the free port of Vladivostok, which have already brought 130 new enterprises, have reduced tariffs for electricity for enterprises of five entities. There are some benefits for ordinary citizens, including the opportunity to apply for a free use for 5 years of land with an area of not more than 1 ha, prescribed legislative easing for tourists - for example, the opportunity for foreigners to visit the macroregion for electronic visas. This year, the program for the construction and modernization of social infrastructure in the Far East started - until 2020, 32 schools and kindergartens, 20 hospitals, 26 sports venues, 7 cultural centers will spend more than 50 billion rubles on federal and regional budgets. But in general, the Far East remains a territory with a continuing outflow of population (as already counted EastRussia, for 2017 year, the population of the Far Eastern Federal District has decreased by 20,2 thousand people), high prices and tariffs and difficult business conditions.
Dmitry Medvedev at the meeting admitted that what has been done in the Far East is still "not enough". "Therefore, we are actively formulating national projects, we need to take into account and reflect the needs of the areas that are in our focus - the Far East, the Baikal region, and achieve the necessary indicators - universal or general indicators such as life expectancy, can only be done by solving problems in a particular region, which can not be done on average in the country or on average even around the county. Everybody knows their problems, I must admit that this is really a difficult task dacha in the Far East ", - said the prime minister.
However, Minvostokrazvitiya together with the governors of the Far Eastern regions and the profile federal ministries is already trying to find ways to solve this "difficult task". As reported by the Prime Minister for the development of the Far East, Alexander Kozlov, "in many positions, the Far East lags far behind the average Russian indicators" and "this lag can not be eliminated without special measures."
For example, the difficult demographic situation in the Far East, according to Alexander Kozlov, cannot be reversed without state support for the birth rate. "We believe that they should be, and as special measures to support families with children, we propose to provide: a one-time payment at the birth of the first child in the amount of 150 thousand rubles, an additional payment to maternity capital in the amount of 30%, a reduced rate of mortgage loans at the birth of a child" , - he said.
"Our next task is to reduce mortality. This is the second important component of natural increase. Today, life expectancy in the Far East is significantly lower than the average Russian value - by 2,6 years. In the Far Eastern Federal District - 71, in Russia - 72,7. National goal - 78 years by 2024. Two key problems: the prohibitive mortality of the working-age population and the high infant mortality rate. - sanitary care, the formation of which the Ministry of Health of Russia directs us, "the minister said.
It will not be possible for the Far East in the current conditions to achieve the goal of improving the living conditions of citizens, said Alexander Kozlov. For this, "it is of fundamental importance to liquidate emergency housing in the Far East: 3,2 million sq. M - of which 2,2 million sq. M are already registered as emergency, 1 million sq. M is the forecast for the growth of the emergency fund, taking into account its wear and tear." "This is worth 236 billion rubles." Unfortunately, the federal project of the Ministry of Construction, unfortunately, only 37, that is, it is already clear that this goal will not be achieved, "the minister said. In addition, the actual cost of 1 sq. M. m of housing in the regions of the Far East, according to Rosstat, significantly exceeds the standard established by the Ministry of Construction, and this "leads to the fact that the federal housing programs in the Far East are underfinanced." "For this reason - the lack of applications for a fixed price per square meter, - the implementation of the program" Housing for the Russian Family "in Komsomolsk-on-Amur was broken," the minister explained.
"The President set the task to increase the volume of housing construction by one and a half times.When we together with our colleagues from the Ministry of Construction evaluated the solution of the problem at our meeting in Khabarovsk, faced with the fact that there are practically no sites with infrastructure for integrated development in the regions of the Far East. in cost per square meter, it will cost even more than I have just said .. We believe that in this connection, the Ministry of Construction together with the regions will need to provide for effective financing mechanisms IAOD engineering infrastructure, "- he added.
"Due to the low population density of the district and transport accessibility, the issue of providing high-quality communication for the Far East is very acute. Today, the existing communication infrastructure does not allow it to be fully resolved. This applies to both trunk communication channels with access to a single network of the country, and telecommunication infrastructure of settlements As a result, 10% of the region's population does not have a high-quality stable connection. In its absence, they have to pay the high cost of satellite communications. For example, the cost of communication services and Internet access via satellite communications at a speed of 1 Mbit on the Kuril Islands is 40 thousand rubles per month. It is quite difficult for the Far East to compete in the development of high technologies with Central Russia, where the entire information infrastructure, educational and research centers are based, where Internet tariffs are many times more affordable than those in the Far East, for example, a tariff for legal entities with an access speed of 100 Mbps per second. Yakutia is 2 times, and in Kamchatka it is 2,7 times more expensive than in Moscow. First of all, it is necessary to provide educational and medical institutions with high-quality communications, to increase the share of households with broadband Internet access to 97% by 2024, "Alexander Kozlov said.
Having cited several examples of the backwardness of the Far East from the average Russian situation, the minister suggested that the prime minister "give appropriate instructions to the relevant federal executive bodies responsible for the development of national projects": "First, the federal executive bodies must submit to the government proposals for inclusion in the government before August national and federal projects of the list of activities that ensure the implementation of strategic objectives of the decree and the achievement of the values of social indicators economic development is higher than the average Russian level for each region, indicating the required amount of financing for the years of implementation.The second is to determine the sources of their financing for each Far Eastern region.Third: When allocating subsidies and other interbudgetary transfers, take into account the deviation of the indicators of social and economic development of regions from the average Russian level , bearing in mind the need to increase funding for lagging regions through the redistribution of funds from regions that have an indicator above average. "