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EGEvacuation from the East
The unified state exam has become a tool for pumping talented youth from the regions of the Far East to the west of the country. Can the abolition of the USE stop the outflow of the bravest young people from the Far Eastern Federal District?
The unified state examination was partly conceived as a "great equalizer" - it gave schoolchildren from the farthest corners a chance to enter the country's leading universities. However, the majority of those who left for study do not return. The situation may change with the cancellation of the USE - talk about this has been going on since its introduction. At the beginning of 2021, this was remembered again. The leader of the Fair Russia party, Sergei Mironov, proposed to phase out the USE, for a start - to release from it those who go to colleges and technical schools. And the Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Education and Science Maxim Zaitsev said that a bill was being developed to abandon the OGE (which is passed at the end of the 9th grade) - and noted that the next step could be the abolition of the Unified State Exam. Supporters of this measure call its controversial effectiveness one of the main motives for abandoning the USE. And if this happens, what will be the consequences for "intellectual migration"?
DO NOT LEAVE STAY
Anastasia Zayats, a student of the 11th grade of the Khabarovsk school, wants to enter a university in St. Petersburg. To pass on international law, she needs to pass three USE: in Russian, English and social studies. Maximum for three exams - 300 points, plus individual achievements that add points. The competition for budget places is large - it means that the more points in total, the better.
“In Khabarovsk, I do not quite see the possibilities for future development in the field of international law,” says Anastasia Zayats.
Parents of a graduate spend 3800 rubles a month for a tutor in Russian, 3500 rubles for online English courses, and the same amount for social studies. If the preparation starts at the beginning of the academic year and lasts until May inclusive, then the total comes out to 97 rubles.
“It seems to me that in the centers that are more developed in Russia - that is, Moscow, St. Petersburg - there is somehow more funding for universities. And education, accordingly, is better ”, - this is how the applicant reflects.
And so many schoolchildren think. Families that have the opportunity to send a child to a capital university - not on the budget, but on paid education - try to use it. In Anastasia's inner circle, there is only one person who definitely decided that he would study in Khabarovsk. The rest decided to leave.
According to Khabarovskstat, in 2019, 42 people left the Khabarovsk Territory for other regions of Russia. For incomplete 472 (not counting December) - 2020 35 people: obviously, the coronavirus pandemic influenced the decrease in migration. But for the Far Eastern region, this is rather an exception, confirming the rule: the population of the Khabarovsk Territory is inexorably decreasing.
Universities accept applicants mainly on the basis of the USE results. So, you need to pass it well in order to find yourself in some other life.USE IN ONE END
Since 2009, when the Unified State Exam became mandatory in all regions of the country, and by 2020 inclusively, the region left (in absolute numbers) 33 people aged 340 to 15 years. That is, on average, about 19 thousand schoolchildren a year have been leaving the region for 11 years. And it is produced - about 3-5 thousand people. Did the USE affect the outflow of young people from the regions?
“To put it very briefly and simply, yes, of course. I'm not talking about any “buts” that follow this. But yes, the Unified State Exam is the tool that allowed the boundaries to be significantly erased. Much. Unambiguously - and the statistics show this - after the USE was introduced, flows have increased dramatically. And this is the specificity of not only our Far Eastern region, it is the specificity of everyone. But we are an order of magnitude higher, ”said Yuri Berezutskiy, Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Social Work and Sociology, DVIU RANEPA.
Schoolchildren prefer the country's Western universities to the Far Eastern ones, because they are sure that the “regional” quality of higher education loses to the “capital” one. But almost no one is considering the option of finding a job in their region after graduation. Students are captivated by the standard of living in the capitals: after spending several years in comfortable conditions and gaining access to new opportunities for development, young people no longer want to go back.
“I've already seen how vast the possibilities can be here and how different people find their place in big cities”
“In Khabarovsk there are few open galleries, workshops, creative associations in which young people could somehow show themselves. The same courses in ceramics, or design, or photography often cost less than a schoolchild or an elementary student can spend. And in St. Petersburg, public spaces provide an opportunity for people from 15 to 30 years old to come to coworking spaces for courses and master classes free of charge. Probably, I would not have returned completely [to Khabarovsk] at all. If there was some opportunity to cooperate with the Far East, then, probably, I would think about this option. But I do not want to move there again, because I have already seen how vast the opportunities here can be and how different people find a place for themselves in big cities, ”said Ekaterina Lapshaeva, a Khabarovsk student who entered the St. Petersburg university.
PARENTS ONLY FOR
Khabarovsk resident Daria Saygushinskaya moved to St. Petersburg more than three years ago. I entered the university, where I passed by points. I decided not to stay in Khabarovsk, because my mother advised me so.
“This is probably the most important reason. She set me up for this for very many years. I chose the university only because I got there through the competition. The city (St. Petersburg) mattered because I didn't want to go to Moscow - although now I study here. Now I am satisfied with my education, I like most of the teachers. In my opinion, it is the teachers who make education of high quality, and not a specific place, ”said Daria.
"ANDit is the teachers who make education of high quality, not a specific place "
Her mother, Larisa Saygushinskaya, believes that Khabarovsk universities do not have such a strong teaching staff as in the capital. Hence the difference in the quality of student education.
“Dasha has a very strong teaching staff at the university. These are professors, these are people with vast experience and practice and theory. These are people who write scientific papers, scientific articles, take part in conferences, and travel abroad. Naturally, in Khabarovsk there is no such teaching staff even close. Take any specialty, any direction. They don't give us the kind of education they do in Moscow, ”says Larisa Saygushinskaya.
Judging by the figures, about a third of the graduates manage to get access to "such education". But the abolition of the exam by itself, according to experts, will not solve the problem of the outflow of young people.
“In my opinion, this will not change anything. Although, perhaps, I am a little cunning: of course, it will change a little. But what is the alternative? Suggest just taking exams like before? The train of this exam is rushing. If you remove it now, there will be no equivalent replacement, ”Yuri Berezutsky believes.
In pursuit of a teacher
According to the rector of the Higher School of Economics, Yaroslav Kuzminov, one of the key differences between higher education and a school and a professional college is that it teaches students not only to accept knowledge, but also to challenge it, doubt and refute it.
“Having become widespread, higher education in the XNUMXth century has largely lost this feature, its root feature, it has become in many ways simply to broadcast ready-made knowledge. Today, there are hardly a third of real research universities in the world, the rest do not actually form innovators, " said Yaroslav Kuzminov in an interview with TASS.
And in order to form these very innovators, conditions are needed: a suitable theoretical base, competent guides to the world of knowledge (teachers), as well as opportunities for exchanging experience and expanding our own horizons. Moreover, both students and their “guides” should have such opportunities.
“On average, we spent 600-800 thousand for our small university per year on student trips in scientific areas. Whole teams traveled: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Rostov ... I don’t consider the Far East. There were many trips, many prizes, diplomas, certificates, cups - and this is only in the scientific direction. And then - funding restrictions. The trips of the teaching staff for internships have also decreased, ”noted Yuri Berezutsky, Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Social Work and Sociology, DVIU RANEPA.
The economic crisis in Russia in 2014-2015 led to a reduction in funding in all areas. But there was a small list of universities, which the state took special care of even in such a difficult time. These universities are participants in the 5-100 project.
HIGH SCHOOL CREAM
The 5-100 project was launched in 2013. According to the idea, in seven years at least five universities of the country were to enter the first hundred of the world's leading universities. Financial support then received 21 educational institutions with federal status, but the idea did not work out. By the end of 2020, there was only one Russian university in the top 5 universities in the world - the Lomonosov Moscow State University, which was not part of the 100-XNUMX project at all.
Yes, the concentration on "flagship" universities has yielded certain results. There are seven Russian universities in the international RUR ranking for teaching quality entered in the top hundred. Many universities participating in the project noted that they have strengthened their global image, improved the educational and administrative process. However, this same concentration on the "flagship" universities has led to the fact that all resources, both material and human, flow into them.
“A simple example: FEFU was opened. Luxurious salaries, conditions. I was there several times at conferences - well, it's just space, let's call a spade a spade. We lived in a hotel where students live - two people each. And they don't even put things in order there themselves, ”Yuri Berezutsky recalled.
The sociologist noted that in his environment there are almost no teachers who left the Khabarovsk Territory and got a job at FEFU. But on others, the advertisement for "the finest salaries and conditions" worked. The 5-100 project pumps out the best mentors to flagship universities - just like the Unified State Exam pumps out talented youth from the regions.
WHO IS REMAINING?
There remain those who cannot pass on points to the leading universities of the country. The passing score is called the exam results of the last in the list of credited to the budget. Let's compare the passing score for jurisprudence in 2020 at different universities. In the St. Petersburg State University (the second most popular in the country), it was 295. The difference with universities in the regions is colossal: at FEFU - 243, at Khabarovsk State University of Economics and Law - 235, at Pacific State University - 230.
However, it also happens that applicants with high scores remain in their hometowns. Anna Meshcheryakova from Khabarovsk once passed the exam in literature by 100 points. She had the opportunity to enter any university in the country out of competition - in those areas where literature is required. But Anna decided to stay in Khabarovsk.
“I was in love at that moment. I wanted to stay in this city with a loved one, she admits. - In general, I am firmly convinced that a person can get a decent education anywhere. Because you can take nothing from the best professor in the department in St. Petersburg. And then the city and the university will not help you. I took in my university, in my department, probably, really everything that was important to me. "
Anna received a specialized education at PNU. I wanted to enter the magistracy in St. Petersburg, but it didn’t work out. She got a job in her specialty in her native Khabarovsk - and believes that it is quite possible here to live, work, and have fun in her free time.
“You understand that almost everyone will leave. It's a little sad to realize it, but then you come to terms with it and live in peace. "
“I like our city. I really like its architecture, I like the atmosphere of calm - when, of course, it is calm. I love our city for the fact that it is developing, for the fact that you can see how new houses are being built, new shopping centers are opening, how large federal companies come here, ”says Anna Meshcheryakova.
Due to the remoteness of the Far Eastern Federal District from the capital of Russia (and because of the high prices for tickets to Moscow, comparable to the monthly salary of a beginner specialist), many Far Easterners feel disconnected from the center of the country's social, political, and cultural life. Someone feels like in a link. But Anna does not have this feeling - but she has something else. And it's about the fact that exceptions prove the rule.
“The only feeling that I have and that people living in Moscow probably don’t have is a total understanding that probably about 60 percent of people close to you, especially from school, will move to the West. This is a fate, or something, Khabarovsk. Perhaps, in principle, the Far East. You understand that almost everyone will leave. It's a little sad to realize, but then you come to terms with it and live calmly. "