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Alexander Osipov: Do not implement commodity projects in the economy in the Far East - wrong
- Alexander Mikhailovich, there is the following expert opinion: we cannot talk about the development of the Far East in isolation from Siberia. Since Siberia is not only a source of natural resources, but also a territory of concentration of a highly developed human capital: scientific and qualified personnel. What do you think about this thesis?
- I don't see any contradictions here. Indeed, Siberia and the Far East are a single macro-region, but at the same time they are also a part of the whole of Russia. Therefore, pulling the Far East out of the all-Russian economic space is wrong. These and other projects that are currently being implemented in the Far East: the Power of Siberia gas pipeline, the expansion of the BAM and Transsib, the development of the Northern Sea Route - these are projects that concern the Far Eastern region only partially, they equally concern the regions of Siberia, the Urals and the European part of Russia ... There is no territorial distinction between the development of these projects, which are especially important for the development of the Far East.
At the same time, there is also a point approach to development - through advanced development territories (TORs), through priority Far Eastern investment projects, which should become the drivers for the development of these regions.
- The main principle according to which the state will create TORs and support investment projects is the ratio of funds invested by the state and funds of private investors involved in the project: one to seven, one to ten. Who calculates the risks and profitability of these projects?
The role of the state in this story is to create conditions and infrastructure that will be interesting for investors, will allow projects to be realized even if the world market conditions are not very favorable.
- Who, ultimately, will be responsible for the implementation of these projects in the parameters that were fixed at the start?
- As for responsibility, we remember it first of all, and not always in a positive sense. And often the focus on responsibility hinders initiative and causes fear of decision-making, prevents the development of ideas that could be useful.
Of course, in the end, in any case, the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East will not be able to stand aside from responsibility for the development of the Far Eastern territories, for fulfilling the tasks set by the country's leadership, having designated the “eastern vector” as a priority in the country's development.
- It is known that the model of the Russian economy is still largely based on raw materials. Will the projects developed on the TOPs become the beginning of building a new in meaning, innovative economy? What projects not related to the extraction of raw materials will be developed in the Far East?
- It is wrong not to implement raw materials projects in the economy in the Far East, since it is in this territory that a significant amount of Russia's mineral reserves are concentrated. And it would not be entirely correct to give up our own raw materials for our own industry or to increase our export opportunities.
Next in line is the Zarechye TOP project in Yakutia - gas chemical production of methanol, urea, liquefied natural gas (LNG), high-tech production. In the Kamchatka ASEZ, in addition to high-quality tourist and recreational services, agricultural enterprises will be created. It is impossible to list all projects here, but there is no doubt that the main vector of efforts, of course, will be aimed at creating conditions for just such projects.
- It is obvious that the development of such a number of new projects will partially employ residents of the territories where the projects will be developed. But it will also require additional labor resources from other regions of the country. What, from your point of view, can help retain and at the same time attract young people to the Far East?
- Within the framework of the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, an Agency for the Development of Human Capital will be created this year, which will be responsible for actively attracting the population to the territory of the Far East. The main thing is to create conditions that will attract young people with the prospects of work and life in the Far East. I mean here, first of all, not sky-high salaries and any preferences, but the opportunity to gain unique professional experience and competencies, the opportunity to work in high-tech projects, thereby building a progressive and successful career. The most technologically and economically advanced countries are located nearby: Japan, Singapore, South Korea. You can go there to study, learn from experience, do joint projects, etc. It should be interesting and attractive for young people.
At the same time, the development of a social and cultural environment in the cities of the Far East in which young people live and work comfortably is of no small importance. Good salaries and career development prospects will not be able to keep people in areas where there is no developed sports, retail, entertainment infrastructure, social services, or a sufficient number of cultural events.
- Will Vladivostok become the third capital of Russia, in your opinion? For the developing Far East, the concentration of at least some of the capital's functions in Vladivostok, perhaps, would have a positive effect on the development of the entire region?
- I don't think it should be done artificially. The law "On the free port of Vladivostok" will be considered and adopted soon. This, in my opinion, should significantly change the dynamics of development of both the city and the Primorsky Territory as a whole.