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About 70% of all Yakutian roads - autosimulators
Stop the machine
In Yakutia, the total length of the road network is about 36 thousand km, of which about 11,2 thousand km are hard-surface roads. All the rest are autowinters. However, the roads that are considered "hard" are often dirt roads, which become difficult to pass in the spring and summer thaw. To this must be added a large number of water barriers, through which there is far from everywhere a bridge crossing. Before the ice got up, ferries run regularly. In spring and autumn, there is a road off-season.
Yakutsk, located on the left bank of the Lena River, is the final point of the federal highway "Lena" and the initial - the federal highway "Kolyma". The city is cut off from the rest of the length of the trails by the river. In fact, until the railway is put into operation, federal roads are the main transport artery of the republic, along which the goods are transported. Ferry crossings in Yakutsk begin to work immediately, as will an ice drift, usually in late May or early June. In early November, the freight flow is interrupted.
Why so little? It's very simple - a ferry in Yakutia is not a specialized vessel, but an ordinary small barge, usually self-propelled, equipped with ramps. The capacity of such a vessel is small, and there is only one icebreaker on the line. In addition, at the beginning of November in Yakutsk it starts to get dark at about 16 pm, so the shipping is on a reduced schedule.
One small touch - the construction and the introduction of an automobile bridge across the Lena in the Yakutsk region, according to the calculations of the republican Ministry of Transport, will result in a total savings of transport costs to 10 billion rubles a year. But there is no bridge yet, we will return to the real state of affairs.
Another 10 years ago, the transport strategy of Yakutia was developed and adopted before the year 2025. It says that "more than 85% of the territory of the republic has a seasonal transport accessibility. The bulk of cargo to the republic is transported in a short navigation period by river transport, the share of which in the republic's freight turnover is 43,7%. About 88% of the volume of production of goods and services is in the regions of the republic, served seasonally. Only 16% of the population lives in the all-year-round transport zone, of 629 rural settlements only 48 are connected to the regional centers by a road network with a solid type of coverage, 25 districts from 33 do not have reliable transport links with the center of the republic and nearby areas. The most serious problems have arisen in the transport service of the population living in the Arctic zone of the republic, where the connection with remote villages and legations has traditionally been carried out by air transport and all-terrain vehicles. "
Only in the winter period the road scheme of the republic becomes one, until the spring, those 70% of 36 thousand come to life, which fall on the automobile roads. Communication is being established with all districts and settlements of Yakutia. But here it is necessary to make a distinction between passenger and cargo traffic.
There are times when autozimmers are discovered and exceptions. So, back in the 1990-ies. Bamovec-bridge-builder Vasily Mazur introduced and demonstrated the technology of ice build-up at the ferries, which allowed to open the traffic of freight traffic through Lena in the Yakutsk region by the middle of November. In the early 2000-ies. Former Minister of Emergency Situations of the Republic Valery Sukhoborov, relying on his experience as a tank driver, also tried to introduce technologies for accelerated preparation of crossings. However, neither one nor the other is not particularly accustomed, the ice crossing opens only in traditional terms. The exception - last winter, when due to the disruption of the delivery of cargo by navigation to some Arctic regions of Yakutia, an additional 2 thousand kilometers of autosimplers were laid. They were opened by the end of December.
Avtozimnik also costs money
It remains to add that avtozimnik is not just a path trail in the snow, it's also a road. For punching avtozimnika use road equipment, the route is equipped with certain road signs. Traditional avtozimniki are usually laid out in such a way that in most cases it is not necessary to organize additional recreation centers or gas stations for drivers. However, for the maintenance of autozimmers of republican significance alone, over 8 thousand kilometers last year, the republican budget provided for an order of 770 million rubles.
In the north of Yakutia in general, difficult road conditions. Here there were so-called "Kolyma-tanks" (additional non-normative fuel tanks), because there are no gas stations at huge distances, and special relationships of truckers have developed. Recently, these Arctic territories have been given special attention. By the order of the head of Yakutia, Yegor Borisov, the establishment of the "Road of the Arctic" has been created, which will serve six districts: the Eveno-Bytantaisky, Momsky, Allayhovsky, Verkhoyansk, Abyisk, Verkhnekolymsky.
Such will be the road network of Yakutia only until spring. Already in April, the ice crossings will close, and many settlements will again be deprived of land routes.