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The road to space starts from the earth
Pavel Buyanovsky, deputy chief of Dalspetsstroi for the construction of special facilities - the head of the branch "Cosmodrome" Vostochny ".
There are people without whom it is difficult to imagine the dynamic construction of the cosmodrome today. In just four years, in the middle of the Amur taiga, an object, which is most complicated from a technical point of view, appeared. Such "specialists" in the construction industry as heavy artillery are thrown into the most important construction sites. In 2012, Pavel Yakovlevich Buyanovsky was one of the first to come to the Amur Region. Before that, there were special-purpose facilities, the Sakhalin - Khabarovsk - Vladivostok, and Komsomolsk-on-Amur - Khabarovsk gas pipelines, the Chita - Khabarovsk - Vladivostok - Nakhodka federal highway. Now an experienced builder had to invest his strength and knowledge in the construction of space infrastructure facilities. Experienced builders are said to have a special flair when choosing a building site. Knowledge or intuition, but they never fail.
“The first time I came to the construction site of Vostochny was long before the first stone was laid. In 2006, several times I was on the territory of the then existing cosmodrome "Svobodny" as part of a special working group. I happened to work on the commission that determined the site for the construction of a new cosmodrome. We had to carefully analyze all the pros and cons before making a final decision. Now I can say that the choice to build Vostochny at the site of the deployment of the missile division and then the Svobodny cosmodrome was absolutely correct. The facilities are located in close proximity to the federal highway and the Trans-Siberian railway. A certain base had already been created here by the beginning of construction. Having repaired the dilapidated barracks, we were able to accommodate the first "landing" of special-purpose builders and receive the necessary building materials. "
The first to the East were relocated the road branches of Dalspetsstroi. Everyone understood that the task was to be carried out of special importance, the project was not a model project, so we set to work with special enthusiasm.
“When we started preparing the site for a vertical layout, cutting down the forest, we did not even have a building permit on our hands. We worked at our own peril and risk, but the lack of documentation greatly hampered the initial stage, not to mention the problems caused by delays in financing. "
Remembering the key moments of construction, Pavel Yakovlevich cannot contain his emotions. How many days were experienced when it seemed that the forces were running out, and the obstacles were insurmountable. But, despite all the difficulties, construction of the main objects of ground space infrastructure began in 2012: an industrial construction and operational base, a launch facility and assembly and test buildings of the technical complex.
Started work in the summer, and in the fall of 2012 the block A slab of the starting structure (mark -16m) was already poured, after which they began to refine the foundation pit for Block B (to -31,5m mark). From the outside it may seem like a simple matter, but if you delve into the subtleties of the technological process, it opens up a lot of interesting details. About 20 cm of soil in the foundation pit, the size of a football field, have been refined manually, with the help of shovels, it is very important to keep accuracy up to a centimeter.
Next year was also not easy. Any expert will tell you how difficult it is to build when you don’t have a solid picture of the future structure in your head.
“As people, for the most part with military training, we are used to working in a 'combat readiness' mode. We worked without vacations and days off, found a way out of any situation, and now we see the result of our work - completed objects of space infrastructure, provided with electricity, heat, water, the most sophisticated automated ventilation and communication systems. "
If every boy once dreamed of becoming an astronaut, then the cosmodrome is the dream of every builder. Extraterrestrial projects would not be entrusted to random people. Having extensive experience in construction, Pavel Yakovlevich always understood that the potential of the enterprise would be sufficient to fulfill the assigned tasks.
No matter what the skeptics say, the construction and installation work was done at the proper level. Experts have proven that they are capable of performing a full range of high-tech, and sometimes unique works. Far Easterners know how to work even in the most severe cold weather. This experience is especially relevant at the Vostochny facilities, since the climate of the construction area is very harsh. In winter, the air temperature here drops below -40 C. And the thickness of the snow cover reaches 30 cm. In addition, at all stages there was strict control, both for the quality of the materials used and for the performance of all technological operations. A construction laboratory has been working at the cosmodrome since the first days, which controls the quality of all construction processes, from the thickness of the paint and varnish layer to the strength and frost resistance of each cubic meter of concrete. For each welded seam, a special conclusion is issued, a kind of "building passport". Sometimes one product undergoes several types of testing, including ultrasound, X-ray and capillary diagnostics.
“This project is not typical, it has its own characteristics both in the structures and in the materials used. For example, at the launch complex, in order for the structure to withstand the exorbitant loads during the launch of the launch vehicle, a complex reinforcement system was used, high-class fittings, large diameters, as well as seventeen conical couplings were used. If we compare with other objects, then, of course, there are technological difficulties, especially in matters of engineering support, installation of complex ventilation equipment, low-voltage networks and fire extinguishing systems, and equipment with electric filling. ”
Pavel Yakovlevich with amazing accuracy tells about each stage of construction. Given such knowledge is not easy. For all four years of construction, he never left the facility for more than a week. When asked about the rest, he answers with irony: "Well, why," smiles Buyanovsky, "left ... even took a vacation for 6 days!" Well, if you add up all the days of my absence, then the month will be typed! ".
But what about the holidays, birthdays? What about the family?
“Construction is my life… there is no time to celebrate holidays and birthdays, but if it works out, it’s always in a team. It so happened that I celebrated everything, both the 50th and 55th anniversary, at the facilities, with my colleagues. "
The honored builder is confident that he and his associates have enough strength for more than one cosmodrome. When asked about the construction of the launch pad for Angar, he answers without thinking for a minute: “What could we have thought, of course, could, it would be interesting to work on this project. There are strengths, experience, the most advanced equipment, and most importantly - there are burning eyes of engineers and a solid team. ”
For his services in the field of military development, he was awarded the Order "For Service to the Motherland in the Armed Forces of the USSR", III degree, in 1997 - with the Order "For Military Merit". For his great personal contribution to the construction of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur-Khabarovsk gas pipeline and the development of the construction complex in the Far East, he was awarded the Medal of the Order of Merit for the Fatherland, 2nd Class.For his services in the field of military development, he was awarded the Order "For Service to the Motherland in the Armed Forces of the USSR", III degree, in 1997 - with the Order "For Military Merit". For his great personal contribution to the construction of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur-Khabarovsk gas pipeline and the development of the construction complex in the Far East, he was awarded the Medal of the Order of Merit for the Fatherland, 2nd Class.
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