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Demo-plans for demo-business
ARCHK offers standard solutions for business organization in the Far Eastern hectare. Most of them were invented by Moscow consulting firms. The level of elaboration is rather demonstrative, the real business on their basis can hardly be raised. Details - in the material EastRussia
The scope of the Agency for the Development of Human Capital in the Far East (ARCHC) expanded. Now, in addition to providing the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District with qualified human resources and developing human resources, the ARCHC will be fully responsible for the implementation of the "Far Eastern Hectare" project. The corresponding order was signed by the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev.
The agency is charged with “providing informational, organizational and methodological support for the acquisition and use of land plots by citizens” within the framework of this program, the press service of ARCHK reported. As is known, with 1 of June, plots are already being allocated - but to residents of the DFO regions and only in “pilot” municipalities. At the moment, according to Site, 386 applications were submitted from them. Of these, 86 are under consideration by the authorized body, 120 bids are concluding contracts, and 180 has already been handed out for use (their total area is 152,3 ha). From 1 October the second stage of the program will begin: all inhabitants of the Far East will be able to get a "hectare" in their region. And then, officials predict, the number of applications will increase significantly. And with 1 February 2017, the "Far Eastern hectare" will be provided to all citizens of Russia. And what will start after this - no one knows yet.
Meanwhile, the question of why people take this hectare in general, remains open, relevant and not trivial at all. The ARCHC rightly believes that if you take it, then in order to organize some kind of business on free land. But here's what - considering both the modest size, and location, and provision of infrastructure? It is clear that there will always be people who know exactly what they need from the land (one of them, for example, the former governor of Primorye Sergey Darkin - he Personally confessed In an interview with IA EastRussia, that he wants to take a hectare, but not one, and not in one place). But such "experts" will clearly not be mass.
To all the rest, so to speak, undecided, or hesitant, the ARCHC decided to help by offering model solutions for the use of the "Far Eastern hectare". On the agency's website for this purpose a special section was created "Own business"in which 19 business plans are currently posted. For ease of navigation, they are broken down by industry - from animal husbandry (4 solutions) to social services (one business plan), by the volume of investments (up to 500 thousand rubles, to 1,5 million rubles, to 10 million rubles and above), and also by payback period (up to a year, up to three and up to five years, and longer). True, the most expensive project (the production of wooden houses) on the site is the cheapest - just by opening the documentation, you understand that the Agency was wrong with 1000 once with the cost of the project - millions of rubles were taken as thousands.
Typical projects for business organization on the "Far Eastern hectare"
Volume of investment, rubles
Cultivation of shiitake mushrooms
Travel Agency in the Far Eastern Federal District
1 9 months
Group of Companies Step by Step
Growing strawberries in the open field
Fund for the Promotion of Agriculture
Group of Companies Step by Step
Fast-food company in the DFO
Group of Companies Step by Step
Creating a fishing farm
Dairy farming: goats
Union of Farmers of the Leningrad Region and St. Petersburg
Meat cattle breeding: rabbits
Union of Farmers of the Leningrad Region and St. Petersburg
Meat cattle breeding: sheep
Union of Farmers of the Leningrad Region and St. Petersburg
Kennel for growing plants
Union of Farmers of the Leningrad Region and St. Petersburg
2 3 months
Group of Companies Step by Step
Electricity from solar energy
Engineer D.V. Garan'kov, NP "Solnechniy Mir"
Manufacture of ready-mixed concrete
2 years 4 months
Creating a vegetable store
2 years 3 months
Manufacture of dairy products
Creation of hunting
Dairy cattle: cattle
Association of peasant (farmer) farms of Primorsky Krai
Manufacture of wooden houses
Obviously, the project "Your business" from the ARCHC is a commendable and necessary initiative. Like any unique undertaking, the "Far Eastern hectare" clearly needs such analytical support - at least in order to encourage the Far East and the inhabitants of other regions of the Russian Federation to think and choose priorities. After all, even those who are precisely planning to engage in a hectare business, there may be doubts and hesitations in choosing directions for organizing "one's business." And since no one else has done anything in reality on the "Far Eastern hectare" in reality, because it has only just begun to be issued, any theory will be in place - until practice appears.
The press service of the ARCHK explained why there are so many typical projects in the sphere of the agro-industrial complex: "According to population polls, most citizens who consider the possibility of obtaining land plots plan to farm on a hectare mainly by farming and / or personal subsidiary plots. Therefore, when choosing the areas of activity for which the Agency presents business plans, priority has been given, in the first place, to such areas as livestock and small-scale crop production. " "In addition to agriculture, the site hosts solutions that are potentially interesting for small and medium-sized businesses in the Far East, as well as business lines that are particularly interesting for the Far East, such as hunting, fishing, and tourism," added Press service.
Themselves "standard solutions", as it is not difficult to guess, carefully looking at the list, are so far represented mostly by "paper projects". In ARCHK this is not concealed, stating that typical projects were considered, or even "demo versions that are present on the main sites for supporting small business".
Ten business plans are written by Moscow consulting agencies - companies that specialize in similar services. So, Four standard solutions Created by the Step by Step Group of Companies, and six more by AI Consult. "The task before us was to develop model business plans on several topics that can be used by citizens and entrepreneurs in the Far East using the Far Eastern hectare, and describe the technology of a particular process (for example, the organization of paid fishing), lead the analyst , As things are in the Far East (in one of the regions), to calculate the project. Initially, the topics were offered by the ARCHC, although somewhere we proposed those types of business that our analysts saw as promising for the Far East and the Agency agreed with us. Or suggested some adjustments. In general, we jointly discussed and agreed on topics, "- described the format of the work of the commercial director of AI-Consult Alexander Zverev. He noted that in cooperation with the ARCHK "teamwork" was used, but without initiators of the project - as they were, as it is easy to guess, not in reality.
Nevertheless, Zverev considers business plans made by the company "interesting or, more correctly, economically expedient". Since in each case the developer carried out a marketing study of sales markets and raw materials for a particular region of the Far Eastern Federal District, the project concept, list, volume and cost of goods and services for sale was determined, estimated operating expenses were estimated to ensure the planned sales volume: "All this was calculated taking into account the Far Eastern characteristics . Then the volume of necessary investments was estimated by collecting offers of potential suppliers and contractors of the Far Eastern Federal District on the cost of equipment, construction, etc. Information was used from open sources. All this served as the starting point for compiling a financial model. As a result of the development of the financial model, project performance indicators were calculated. If the indicators turned out to be average market and higher, then the calculations were made and the business plan was further drawn up. If the indicators did not suit, then the next iteration was run: the above process corrected the initial data and was repeated to a positive result. "
What is not in the business plans (again, probably, due to the objective lack of relevant data on issued Far Eastern hectares) - this is the cost of connecting plots to a particular infrastructure, which is necessary for the implementation of the business plan. Even the most obvious - that is, in business plans, the purchase of equipment and machine tools is announced, but there is no elementary connection to the electricity networks. And not even a corresponding reservation has been made. Not to mention the roads, water supply and drainage, communications.
In the dry balance, the future initiator (investor) of the project was offered a standard solution, which presents the investment idea as a whole as an opportunity to create a business on the "Far Eastern hectare". "We proposed, rather, a methodological basis on the basis of which a person or an investor can make a decision. Undoubtedly, when deciding an initiator to participate in the implementation of a project, the standard solution must, of course, be updated for a specific DFO subject, a site, possibly other building materials, equipment, etc. You can do it with the help of our or another team of specialists, "explained Zverev.
"Criteria for selecting typical projects were: a) feasibility in one or several regions of the Far East, taking into account climatic conditions, marketing analysis, logistics; B) sold on land plots provided under the Far Eastern Hectare Act, c) implemented by a small / medium business enterprise, d) replicable with minor improvements. During the selection of projects, the Agency specialists dealt with many companies, including those that act under the umbrella brand rbc, with regional offices of the CCI in the Far East, with regional executive authorities in the Far East responsible for supporting small and medium-sized businesses, with public organizations, in Including youth, and infrastructure organizations involved in supporting small and medium-sized businesses ", - described the algorithm of work in the ARCHK.
It is noteworthy that in part these works were paid for. On the website of the electronic trading site of Gazprombank IA EastRussia managed to find information on five lots, the winners in which in June was just the company "AI-consult", which won the purchase of Step by Step. The cost of lots was not large. So, for the development of a standard solution for the production of dairy products, the winner received 23 thousand rubles from the ARCHC, 21 thousand rubles for the vegetable store business plan, and 24 thousand rubles for the demo versions of the building materials and canned fish production, respectively.
Private owners - bees, mushrooms and solar energy
However, part of the standard solutions reflected in the project "Its business", the ARCHC got for free. Some were offered by individuals - residents of the Far East - even during the contest for the best idea on the use of the Far Eastern hectare, which the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation held last summer. For example, projects Artema Degtyareva And engineer Dmitry Garankov - from those who won it a victory. They also exist so far in the paper stage - no investors, no clear project solutions for them.
The project of Garankov for the construction of solar power plants is one of the most expensive of the standard: 24,5 million rubles and seven years of payback. On one hectare in Primorye, the engineer suggests assembling rows of solar panels on stationary piles. In a commentary for IA EastRussia, Dmitry Garankov said that he was doing the project with a team of like-minded people: "The ARCHC announced a competition, we decided to participate, we sketched out plans, drawings, made simple calculations, issued two projects and sent them to the contest. One business plan passed - "Sunny megawatt". My friends and I formulated our "solar ideology", according to which humanity, in the foreseeable future, will use mainly solar energy in production and in everyday life. And this project fits well into the general outline. "
According to him, investors do not have a project yet - their team will look for them when they take a hectare for use. "Not yet. In the desired area the sites are not yet distributed. I'm waiting! ", Answered Garankov. Now he and like-minded people are looking for a grant to carry out design and survey work on one and a half to two dozen sites in all the subjects of the Far East. "I acted classically - I considered capital expenditures taking into account design and survey work and project expertise, estimated gross proceeds from realized electricity, took away costs for servicing the solar power plant, taxes. Based on low-cost panels with an efficiency of 20%. I studied insolation from weather stations. The payback period turned out to be seven years, with a discount of 9 years, "- described the work of Garankov.
The project provides for a number of by-products that can be produced on the basis of solar energy: vegetables, potatoes, melons, fruit and berry products and honey. It provides for the self-employment of a family of 4-5 people, and after its full implementation allows you to keep on bringing income, in total, to 10 people.
The feasibility of the project, of course, raises questions. The 1 MW solar power station in Batagay settlement of Yakutia in 2015 was built by RAO ES of the East. The station for a circle cost 200 million rubles, the payback period is 9 years, the source of return on investment is the saving of expensive diesel fuel. In the RAO "ES of the East" IA EastRussia commented that they are theoretically ready to receive electricity produced by a solar station built by a citizen. But the cost of the tariff requires separate calculations, as well as the price of technical connection.
Artem Degtyarev with the project of growing mushrooms Shiitake hopes to attract government money. "But, unfortunately, mushroom farming as an industry in Russia does not officially exist, especially in the Far East. In this regard, there are no support measures for mushroom farms (grants, subsidies), "he complains. Degtyarev made a business plan for himself, answered vaguely about investors - "there are already some successes in this direction, but it's too early to talk about them". Gektar Degtyarev plans to take after 1 October, "when the law comes into force on the territory of interest to me."
Degtyarev is sure that the direction he has chosen has "a good development potential, because there is an ecological and social component and optimal compatibility with the" Far Eastern hectare "program. He notes that southern Primorye is very similar in climatic conditions to neighboring countries - South Korea, China, Japan (monsoon climate, high humidity). And there just there are many similar farms. "Plus, the mushroom we chose-shiitake-is not found anywhere in the wilds of our country, except in Primorye. That is, the conditions for growing here are suitable. " Also, Artem stresses that members of his team have experience of intensive production of mushrooms, among them there are mycologists. "We also maintain contact with the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences - the Biological Soil Institute. Based on the experience and knowledge of these people, and also relying on foreign experience, it was not difficult for us to calculate the necessary amount of initial investments. The payback period was based on the data of farmers from the United States, Japan, South Korea, taking into account our realities. " Until the stage of plantations on the ground, there are still many problems to be solved.
Another project - a bee apiary - said the student Sergey Bibeev. "I have not taken a hectare and applied for it. Until I finish my studies, I'm unlikely to get involved in the project, "he told the EastRussia news agency. He honestly admitted that his business plan was "paper", was made for himself, but the project was based on three requirements - quick payback, low cost and profitability. "I took the average prices of online stores for equipment, materials, etc., summarized them, from which a certain figure was obtained. In occasion of payback: if you manage to sell all produced honey - the project pays off immediately, quickly, without any problems; It is not possible, for one reason or another - no, or not fully. In my opinion, a quick payoff will only happen when creating an online store as a way of selling products. "
"Based on the results of the contest of ideas" Far Eastern hectare "several ideas were selected for posting on the site as standard solutions. These projects, in addition to the ideological component, contain a marketing and analytical review, the estimated part. Perhaps they do not have such a thorough elaboration of the financial plan, but these are real ideas of citizens, including those living in the Far East, or wishing to move and do their work on a hectare. The authors of the projects conducted market analysis on their decisions, therefore their business plans contain analytical information and citizens who plan to do their business in related industries can also be useful. Economic parameters of business plans were considered a standard method: based on cost estimates and income plans, "the press service of the ARCHC noted.
Farmers and cattle breeders
Four standard solutions for the ARCHK were proposed by the NP "Union of Farmers of the Leningrad Region and St. Petersburg" - all from the sphere of agro-industrial complex. In this organization, the request was not answered by EastRussia. But the answer came from the Foundation for the Promotion of Agriculture - an organization from Moscow, which is the assignee of the Winged Fire Foundation and Aviation in Support of the President of Russia. Heads this structure Klim Galiullin, Judging by biographies - aviator and builder. "Since 2012, the Foundation has created instruments for the development of the agro-industrial complex of Russia, implements socially significant, socially-oriented projects in the field of agriculture, culture, tourism of Russia, as well as the computerization and Internetization of the Russian village."
For the ARCHK, the Foundation provided a business plan for the cultivation of strawberries - and presented on a gratuitous basis. The press service of the Fund said that such a business is highly profitable and in demand in the north-west of Russia and the neighboring country with Finland. "Climatic conditions here in something even more severe than the climate of Primorye. The initial data for the business plan are real, the prices indicated are valid at the time of preparation of the business plan, that is, at the beginning of the 2016 year. Of course, they require periodic updates. But the business plan is made together with one of the successful farmers who grows strawberries in the Leningrad region. Therefore, it is realistic. "
Perhaps, of all 19 standard solutions, only one is truly alive and even embodied in reality. This project, proposed by the Association of Peasant (Farm) farms of Primorsky Krai - an organization registered in the village of. Mikhailovka Mikhailovsky district of the region. The business plan for the construction of a cattle-breeding family farm with milk production costs 16,7 million rubles and is designed to pay back in five years. According to the president of the Association Alexey Rachenkov, A similar business plan has already been implemented in one of the farms in the Mikhailovsky district. The enterprise on 80 heads of cattle works there since 2014 year, it is effective and cost-effective. And similar farms, in theory, can be built on other hectares.
With the planned size of a herd of cows in 50 goals, milk production will be about 250 tons per year, meat - 5,5 tons per year. Demand for milk in Primorye is, in addition, in the province there is a program to support the development of family livestock farms, within which you can get a grant of up to 10 million rubles. The main project costs (acquisition of breeding stock, construction of a cowshed and purchase of equipment) can be covered with a grant.
True, for the successful operation of such a farm, you need at least three hectares (taking into account the purchase of feed for cows), or rent an additional area of the order of 100 hectares for harvesting bulky fodder (hay, haylage). According to Rachenkov, one hectare is too little for the organization of a full-fledged business, especially for livestock. "The maximum for subsidiary farming, for themselves and for relatives. Probably, it is possible to put greenhouses with mushrooms or strawberries, but it still rests on the issues of providing sites with infrastructure - light, water, roads. It's unlikely that it will be possible to organize a business that can become the main earnings, "Rachenkov said.
ARCHK understand this problem. But they remind that, according to federal law, there is a possibility of submitting a collective application from a group of persons to 10 people: “Thus, it is possible to choose a plot of land up to 10 hectare. Additional space is also possible to rent: if the need arises, the recipient of the “Far Eastern hectare” has the right, in the general manner established by the Land Code, the Forest Code, and outside the “Far Eastern hectare” program to apply for the provision of, including, a hectare land plot, which is in state or municipal property ".
Not enough success stories
"No one has formulated clearly and clearly what can be done with the land ... And there are no real stories from local so far neither from us nor from colleagues from other regions," noted in the summer in an interview with a correspondent of the IA EastRussia, a source in the One of the regional administrations. So then commented on the results of the contest of ideas from Minvostokrazvitiya. And this, in fact, is logical and explainable: the program has just started, and therefore it will be possible to speak about the effective use of a hectare when it unfolds and when the first success story appears.
In the meantime, according to experts, one can speak only about directions that are promising in theory. According to Artem Degtyarev, given the current situation and the needs of the domestic market of the Far Eastern Federal District, as well as neighboring countries, the most appropriate solutions for business in hectares will be tourism, organic farming (oriented, for example, to China, where the demand for quality food products is growing) and Multicluster settlements - business combinations on neighboring hectares, "with different types of microproducts, coordinated among themselves for optimization and creation of synergetic effect". "It is necessary, for example, to create cooperatives of small and medium-sized agricultural producers of the type" LavkaLavka ", but of an international level," Degtyarev said.
Dmitry Garankov adds that in a hectare you can build, in addition to tourism, businesses in the field of forestry, fishing and even mining. "Taking into account the lack of own food in the Far East, any direction of agricultural activities is perspective if they take into account the peculiarities of a particular locality," the Fund for Assistance to Agricultural Development says.
“Some prospects for acquiring hectares will be the implementation of projects in such areas of agriculture as breeding various kinds of small livestock - rabbits, goats, sheep, and also in poultry farming. For the simple reason that these animals are easy to feed, and also they are not demanding to care. It makes some sense to organize joinery workshops and furniture production. If we talk about deliveries to the market of the Asia-Pacific countries, from the Far Eastern hectares Eleutherococcus and Ginseng will go well there. To a large extent, ginseng, so Eleutherococcus cannot be grown quickly, ”an associate professor at the Department of Economic and Social Geography of Russia at the Faculty of Geography of Moscow State University told EastRussia. Mv Lomonosov Vladimir Gorlov.
This commentary scientist gave us in the summer; unfortunately, he passed away in August. Therefore, his opinion is all the more valuable. According to Gorlov, the possible areas of activity that he listed in the Far Eastern hectares are expedient, since they do not require great competence, are convenient and fast to perform, and are also suitable for local environmental conditions. “But nevertheless, it will be possible to talk about the best use of Far Eastern hectares only when it will be clear exactly how many people have purchased them in general,” added Vladimir Gorlov.
"With the appropriate soil and receiving subsidies from the state, it is promising to grow on a hectare of vegetables in greenhouses, as well as hay and poultry. More ducks, since it goes on sale already two or three months after the start of the project. As for rabbit breeding, rabbits are not strong, but they are nevertheless demanding to leave - in connection with their propensity for disease, but they do not differ so much that it is very good. Therefore, I do not think that it was very promising to lead rabbit breeding on hectares. It does not make a lot of sense to goat breeding, as there is no market for goat milk in the Far East, "the adviser to the president of the Association of Farm (Peasant) Farms and Agricultural Cooperatives of Russia (AKKOR) told IA EastRussia, Hope Bezdomko. Adding that all the products from hectares are better to supply only for the needs of the subjects in which they are located - as this will greatly benefit kindergartens, schools, boarding schools, hospitals, nursing homes, forced to make purchases from the winning tenders of manufacturers located in remote From them regions.
The library of standard solutions will be constantly replenished, noted in the ARCHK. "Our specialists are open to any proposals and are looking for initiative citizens, public organizations ready to share ready solutions. We want to provide as much information as possible to citizens who would like to, but can not decide, plan to start their own business, look for information. Typical solutions are examples that can be further developed taking into account the initial parameters of a particular enterprise independently or with the involvement of specialists, "the press service of the ARCHC stresses.
About the first successes in building businesses in the Far Eastern hectares can be judged already, at least next year. And the first heroes will obviously be local residents who, before obtaining a free land plot, were engaged in business "on the ground" and are familiar with all realities. All other daredevils, obviously, will not be superfluous will be business plans from the ARCHK. "It's premature to talk about full-scale success stories, realized in three months. There are examples where people take plots and organize apiaries for them. We also know about the plans of people to start their own business and build tourist bases or farm. Examples of business implementation also exist, "the press service of the ARCHC told us.