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The Far East: what is it? Far Eastern: who is this?
A series of essays on how, why and for whom to develop the Far East. Essay 1
Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Culturology of the Pacific State University, Doctor of Philosophy
On the need for the development of the Far East did not speak only lazy. This region is related to national priorities, a special ministry for development of it has been created for it, conferences, meetings, forums and meetings are being held on the topic of how this Far East itself is better, deeper and more fully developed. The number of developers is growing. Here a similar growth of something (well, except for the number of people leaving or intending to do this) is not observed. Here it comes to mind that, apparently, there is some discrepancy in the very formulation of the question. What is it?
First, in the ... Far East. Despite the fact that this term has been applied to Russian lands for more than 100 years (before that the term referred to China, Japan, and sometimes to India), the Russian Far East remains only a politico-administrative, but not economic and cultural entity. To do this, it is too different and big. Yet 36% of the country's territory. Too long: from the Arctic with permafrost to Primorye with ripening watermelons and grapes.
The zones along the Amur and the Trans-Siberian with a relatively high population density quite comparable to the average for Russia are quite distinct. More than three million people live on the square that is not giant, but comparable to the trans-Ural (European) subjects of the federation. It is here that the big cities, the industry developed on the Far Eastern scale, the social sphere, fertile lands, which, in terms of yield, already competed with the Kuban at the beginning of the 20 century. Why is this blessed land not visible?
Yes, everything is simple. The population is calculated by the subjects of the federation, each of which, except for the inhabited lands, includes not particularly inhabited. For example, except for the completely populated south and the center of the Khabarovsk Territory, half of the region is occupied by almost uninhabited: Okhotsk, Tuguro-Chumikansky and Ayano-May districts. About 10 thousand people live throughout this territory. The situation is similar in other southern regions of the FEFD.
It is clear that the general development program, even for the southern subjects of the federation, is built with difficulty. They are different. But their difference from other regions, administratively included in the Far Eastern Federal District, is even more significant. There is a comfortable and habitable southern Primorye, there are Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Vanino and SovGavan - areas with relatively developed transport and established international connections. A different picture in the Northern Primorye. Despite quite serious efforts, in any case, stormy discussions, prospects for the development of the Northern Sea Route, which should radically improve the logistics capabilities of the northern part of the coastal strip, while the territory remains isolated enough, living unique fish stocks, as a hundred years ago.
And a very different picture is represented by the giant spaces of Yakutia, Magadan Region, Chukotka - also very different: from industrial regions to traditional subarctic economy. Yes, there are unique natural storerooms, incredible reserves of everything and everything: from diamonds to uranium and gold. But only people in these territories do not live where there is wealth, but where there are some comfortable living conditions. In addition to those who prefer to live the way their ancestors lived. But these residents are not eager to find employment in extremely necessary and promising enterprises for the development of mineral resources.
But if the problem was only this, everything would not be so sad. It is clear that the program of the Far Eastern hectare in the Magadan region or in the north of Yakutia has a very limited sense, but after all, it is possible to introduce corrections, to make the program not for the Far East, but for its various parts, based on their needs and characteristics.
For example, it is unexpected to recall that our country is called the Russian Federation, not because the word is beautiful, but because the living conditions in the country are very different - in terms of climate, food preferences, everyday habits and features of speech. Hence, there must be special features in both legal regulation and economic life. For example, do not fight the regional deputies over the law on the Far East, but consolidate the right for the subjects of the federation, and maybe for the regions, to create legal norms more appropriate to the conditions of life in these places.
But this is the most obvious part of the conditions of the problem, which is easier to take into account than others. Not easy, but easier. What is the problem? People living in the region (and people still live here) have become accustomed to a certain type of activity, a certain type of interaction with the authorities. At some point in the beautiful far away intelligent and responsible citizens decided that this activity does not meet modern ideas about high standards of anything. Far Easterners live and work, as seen from the outside, not efficiently, creatively and in a modern way. It is necessary to help.
Actually, it was the beginning of all the development programs of the region over the past three hundred years. And now we translate this into the language of the Far East. People are thrown out of the comfort zone into an incomprehensible and not very friendly world, created or created in complete distraction from the fact that they are. After this, developers start to be genuinely surprised at the mass departure of residents from the region, often reminiscent of flight. And what are they? Apparently, backward.
Once, in the most recent 90-ies, people tried to take out of such "backward" areas. In fact, why are they being tormented there? Let them live in big cities or suburbs. Someone left. But a significant part stubbornly held on to their unpromising villages. Here the second problem is rooted: how to develop the Far East, without destroying the Far East, without expelling them de facto with the land they have inhabited and warmed by them? Is it possible to reconcile the progressive intention of the center and the desire of the majority of the inhabitants of the region, which, by the way, simply can not be replaced by anyone? I think yes. And about this my The following essay.