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Far East orphans "squares"
How to solve the problem of providing housing for orphans in the east of the country
The provision of housing for orphans and children left without parental care is the responsibility of the state, which is performed very differently throughout the country. Somewhere in the Far East there are practically no problems with this, but some densely populated regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, due to the lack of systematic work and huge queues for housing, are at a dead end, a quick exit from which is capable, without exaggeration, of "crushing regional budgets." EastRussia was aware of clever bureaucratic schemes, the reasons for the slippage of construction projects and the collapse of buildings, as well as separately - in the situation in Primorye, where apartments are waiting for 6,5 thousand people.
Three Far Eastern regions can serve as a model for how regional authorities should provide shelter for orphans and children left without parental care. So, in general there is no debt on this indicator in the Magadan region. Kolyma is one of the leaders in Russia. Last year, here planned to purchase for graduates of orphanages 135 apartments. Most of them were to be bought in the regional capital - in this region, orphans themselves have the right to choose where they want to live, and most often they choose Magadan. The plans have been implemented in full.
In the Kamchatka Territory, the program to provide housing for orphans is being implemented no less successfully. The region also occupies a leading position in the ranking of the subjects of the Russian Federation. At the end of last year, more than 100 children left without parental care moved into their own apartments. In total, since 2013, about 800 citizens of this category have been provided with housing in Kamchatka. Moreover, most of the apartments for orphans are purchased not in separate, specially built houses, but in ordinary residential areas. This contributes to a faster and more successful socialization of graduates of orphanages.
On Sakhalin, the situation is so good that the authorized representative under the President of the Russian Federation for the rights of the child, Anna Kuznetsova, considered that the experience of the region can serve as an example for all others. Apartments for orphans here are also purchased in existing residential areas, and almost all of them apply for help. The lion's share of funds for these purposes is allocated from the regional treasury. So, in 2016 258 apartments were purchased, in 2017 year - 220 apartments.
The situation is much worse in the Amur Region. As a result of last year, the most funds were allocated to provide housing for orphans in the capital of the region. However, only 41 resident of Blagoveshchensk could celebrate the housewarming. To reduce the number of graduates from orphanages, additional measures were taken. In particular, last year, with the development of budget funds, the region managed to save more than 700 thousand rubles. This money deputies of the legislative assembly of the Amur region decided to send to improve the situation with housing for orphans.
But, despite all the efforts, it's too early to talk about progress. Thus, only the intervention of the prosecutor's office helped get a house and a residence permit for five graduates of orphanages from Belogorsky district. Having grown up without parental care, the Amur residents have already got their own children, but they still had to rent housing. Only an appeal to the prosecutor's office helped to remove the housing issue. The court ruled in their favor, and in 2017 it was executed.
In the Amur region, orphans, in general, most often receive the square meters prescribed by law, not in the order of the living queuing, but in the order of the queue, composed of unfulfilled court decisions. In whose case the decision was rendered earlier, he will be the first to receive housing. it recognized even the governor of the region Alexander Kozlov: "Now in almost all regional budgets a difficult situation. The volume of financial resources is limited. To date, the administration of the Free is 162 unfulfilled judgments. The amount of funding this year will only provide partially housing for orphans, court decisions on which were made as early as 2013-2014 years. "
In the Khabarovsk Territory without the intervention of the prosecutor's office also does not do. Only after the intervention of law enforcement bodies by the end of the year 2017 was completed the construction of the first stage of the residential complex "Tverdokhlebovo" near Khabarovsk, where 50 apartments were intended for orphans. Construction began in 2013-2014, but due to weak control by the authorities, the contractor used the funds for other purposes, which led to the construction site being stopped. Two criminal cases were initiated: in relation to the general director of the developer Kapitel LLC, on the fact of embezzlement, with respect to the former Minister of Construction of the region - on the fact of negligence. The guilty verdicts were pronounced late last year or early this year: the businessman received 4 years of imprisonment, the ex-official - 5,5 years. The prosecutor's office sent last year to the courts of 58 lawsuits in defense of the rights of orphans to provide housing.
As of December last year, almost 3,3 thousand persons from the number of orphans and children left without parental care in need of housing were registered with the Ministry of Housing and Communal Services of the Khabarovsk Territory. The pace of housing construction does not yet allow eliminating the queue: for example, in 2018, according to the regional prosecutor's office, it was planned to build at least 450 apartments, but in the course of adjusting the profile state program, this figure is planned to be increased to 580.Since 2006, the Khabarovsk Ministry of Housing and Utilities has provided graduates of orphanages 1712 apartments. Those who are still awaiting housing will be reimbursed for rental costs from the regional budget. In Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur, they are paid 10 thousand rubles each, in the centers of districts - 5 thousand, in villages - 2,7 thousand rubles. This support measure has been in effect since 2014, and has already been used by 1,2 thousand people.
EXPECTED BY YEARS
The most difficult situation with housing for orphans is in the Primorsky Territory. The vice-governor of the Primorsky Territory, Konstantin Mezhonov, admits that the problem of providing housing for orphans "is still one of the most acute": more than 6,5 thousand people are waiting for apartments, and most of them are adults. The region decided to follow the path already tested in the Khabarovsk Territory. The administration of Primorye, with the filing of the regional prosecutor's office, prepared a draft regional law on the provision of monthly compensation from the regional treasury for expenses for renting or sub-renting housing in the territory of the region, and the deputies proposed to introduce a simplified procedure for transferring land to those entrepreneurs who are ready to share part of the apartments in the constructed apartment buildings for children - orphans.
So far, new mechanisms have not worked, in Primorye will continue to build and buy housing for orphans: Konstantin Mezhonov lists the planned for surrender of the house, mainly in the settlements - not in Vladivostok. That's only with these current programs, as law enforcement agencies found out, not everything is as good as it seems.
In the summer of 2017, the prosecutor's office's investigation revealed violations of the law when purchasing residential premises for orphans at the expense of the federal and regional budget. The manager of almost 660 million rubles for 2017 was the Department of Education and Science, but there were no trained specialists who could work with the contract system. Trying to analyze the property market using the free ads site to determine the initial maximum price of future contracts, the agency specialists used announcements for the sale of apartments at prices well above average market prices, says Elena Telegina, senior assistant to the Primorsky region prosecutor.
As a result, prices for almost all government contracts for the purchase of housing for orphans were overstated by at least 30-50%, or even twice, and the announcements that officials were guided by were posted by anonymous authors. "On the territory of the Partizansky urban district in the first half of 2017, department employees purchased five apartments at a contract price of 1 rubles, while similar apartments were offered for sale at prices ranging from 179 to 345 rubles," the prosecutor's office cites an example. In one of the villages, the department purchased an apartment for 500 thousand rubles, which was bought three months before the auction by the previous owner for 000 thousand rubles at an average price of similar real estate objects of 900-000 thousand rubles, Elena Telegina gives another example. On this fact, a criminal case was initiated on suspicion of fraud (part 973 of article 270 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation).
Meanwhile, the regional authorities receive from the supervisory authority mass actions in defense of the rights of orphans for housing: only from July 2014 to November 2017, they were filed over 4,5 thousand. Last year, the administration of the region was fined by the decision of the bailiff service for non-enforcement of judicial decisions on housing for orphans almost 4 thousand times for a total of 180,8 million rubles. In January of this year, the authority to purchase dwellings for subsequent provision to orphans upon submission to the regional prosecutor's office was transferred to the Department of Land and Property Relations, but until 1 July, during the transition period, the Department of Education and Science continues to deal with the matter.
At the same time, funds for the construction of housing for orphans in the budget of Primorye, albeit not in full, are available. The problem is different. For example, in 2016, the urban planning department of the regional administration could dispose of the amount of 300,75 million rubles intended for the construction of six houses with 216 apartments. But in the end, officials did not use 71% of the funds, having concluded only one contract for the construction of two houses and three contracts for the development of design estimates. The regional investigation department of the ICR, based on the materials of the prosecutor's check, opened a criminal case on this fact under Part 1 of Art. 293 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, its investigation continues.
The Department of Urban Development of Primorye admits that in 2017 they spent only 42,52% of the funds allocated for the construction of housing for orphans. But they refer to objective reasons: the low quality of work of the municipalities, which are selecting plots for future construction, and the long terms of preliminary procedures and works. "From the moment the commission makes a decision on the selection of a land plot until reaching the stage of construction and installation work, at least 230 days are required. These periods include 70 days of procurement procedures for the development of design estimates for linking a standard project to the selected land plot, at least 60 days execution of the contract itself, 30-60 days to obtain a positive conclusion of the state examination, and another 70 days for purchases at the stage of construction and installation works, "the department explains.
"However, the main reason for the incomplete development of budget funds in 2017 is the fact that in previous years the previous management of the department did not conduct a commission for the selection of land for the construction of houses, and therefore the work plan for the next 2017 fiscal year was not defined," - the department says. Now the department has selected 12 plots for construction, thereby forming a work plan for 2018-2019 years, officials assure.
NOT IN YOUR APARTMENT - AND WHERE?
However, you start to look at these statistics with different eyes when you talk live with those who are on the waiting list for housing. 40-year-old Irina (name has been changed. - EastRussia) only last year learned that she had the right to free housing - when she found herself in the center of social support for pregnant girls and mothers with children "Living Hope" in the suburbs of Vladivostok. Her mother died when the girl was 5 years old, her father married another woman when she was 16. The stepmother's son asked to be discharged, and wanderings began: work at the post office, marriage, the death of her husband, a private farm, pregnancy. Now, together with her one-year-old daughter, Irina has been living for nine months in a two-story house with an attic. Here, old furniture - like the world on a string, but at the same time warm, clean and smells like food.
"There is a category of boys and girls, graduates of orphanages who have nowhere to go. They turned 18, they were released from the orphanage; at best, they entered vocational schools with hostels. But girls, if they became mothers, could not stay in the hostel Secondly, many of them abandoned their schools, scattered around the cities and villages. Many managed to make up their minds in this life, to find themselves, but not all, "says Alexander Vitalyev, director of the Zhivaya Hope center. He now has eight mothers and 12 children. They help girls and women restore their passports and other documents, teach them how to prepare and maintain a budget, and get them employed. The building went to the center from a citizen of New Zealand, Rachel Hughes, who in 2008 started working with the seaside street children, and then went home, but left "Living Hope" a house.
The staff of the center, which can accommodate up to 15 mothers, has six people: in addition to the director, these are two social workers, a psychologist, a lawyer and an accountant. Among those whom they have already helped are 23-year-old Victoria with her three-year-old son. There is a court decision that the authorities should give her housing in Bolshoy Kamen. True, the girl herself says that she wants to stay in Vladivostok. She studied in Ussuriisk as a plasterer-painter, then as a cook - just to live in a hostel, then "went to the guests: she spent the night there, then there." Now he rents housing for 20 thousand rubles. per month. "In general, only a few of my friends from the orphanage received housing. And that is thanks to relatives, friends who helped knock out this housing. They also waited a very long time, for 8-12 years. A loader, who is already 30 years old, is working with me. he is still waiting for an apartment, "says Victoria.
Many orphans would like housing in Vladivostok, which is understandable, there are more people on the waiting list - 854, according to Natalia Vasilyanskaya, deputy head of the regional education department. But in the capital of Primorye, unlike villages and small towns, residential facilities for this category of citizens are not being built at all. True, the department of urban planning of the region says that after the completion of the construction of "Complex D" of the residential area "Snegovaya Pad" in 2019 "the issue of transferring a certain number of apartments to the ownership of Primorsky Territory for inclusion in a specialized housing stock and subsequent transfer to persons from among orphans, children left without parental care ".
It remains to be hoped that, at least with this construction, nothing bad will happen.