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Far Eastern expertise
As a result of the first quarter of 2015, the implementation of the federal target program for the development of the Far East was only 1,2%
- Yuri Vitalievich, last year the Accounts Chamber noted the unevenness of the implementation of the federal target program "Development of the regions of the Far East and the Baikal region": as of September 1, 2014, the implementation of this program was 23,5%. What recommendations did the Accounts Chamber give to the Ministry for the Development of the Far East? What determines the even use of funds throughout the year and how are things in the first quarter of 2015?
- The Accounts Chamber has repeatedly pointed out to the government the problem of uneven execution of federal budget expenditures, including under the federal target program "Economic and Social Development of the Far East and the Baikal Region." Last fall, Deputy Prime Minister and Presidential Plenipotentiary in the Far Eastern Federal District Yuri Trutnev held a meeting on this topic. As a result, the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East and the Ministry of Transport received comments on the coordination of the work of state customers of the federal target program, and the work of Rossmorrechflot and the Federal Air Transport Agency was recognized as unsatisfactory. However, it is not yet necessary to say that the problem has been solved. For example, the cash execution of the FTP as of December 1, 2014 was 43%, and as of January 1, 2015, it was already 94%. At the end of the 2015st quarter of 1,2, the execution was XNUMX%. This suggests that the problem of equal execution of federal budget expenditures under the program has not yet been resolved. Although this factor is of key importance in this region, since the timing is often determined by natural and climatic features.
The main reason for the problem is the lack of a FTP management system. The Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, as a state customer-coordinator, has not yet proposed new forms and methods of management, the corresponding regulation has not yet been approved. We sent our proposals on this issue to the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East.
In terms of expenditures, the largest share - about 60% - is taken by the social sphere. As you understand, in the conditions of a deficit of the consolidated budgets of the macroregion (with the exception of the Sakhalin Oblast), it is necessary to strengthen control over federal investments in capital construction of transport and energy infrastructure.
- Based on the examination of the draft state program "Development of the regions of the Far East and the Baikal region", the Accounts Chamber in the middle of last year made a conclusion, in which, among other things, it was noted that "the target values of most of the indicators of the draft program contradict its goals, since they tend to decrease and do not characterize the benefits from its implementation ”. For example, the values for the population have been reduced (if in 2015 11,1 million people live in the macroregion, then by 2025 10,8 million people are planned), indicators characterizing the change in the GRP structure and the improvement in the standard of living of the population of the macroregion, absent. Does the state program change in real time, in accordance with your recommendations and instructions to the executive authorities?
- 30 March of this year came into force the law on territories of advanced development (TOP) and announced the first TORs and investment projects that will receive state support. You noted that the main shortcomings of the bills on the creation of territories for advanced development are the lack of necessary calculations and justifications for a number of indicators - on the planned increase in tax revenues to the budget system, the amount of budget investments needed to create the infrastructure of these territories, and the necessary industry specialization of these territories And regulation of property, town-planning, land and other legal relations. There are no subordinate acts regulating the implementation of this law. Which agency makes the preliminary planning and bears the main responsibility in case of inefficient use of budget funds, which will be allocated to the TORs?
- According to the law on territories of advanced development, within three years from the date of its entry into force, TORs can be created only in the territories of the regions that make up the DFO, as well as in single-industry cities. At the end of three years, it will be possible to create TOPs throughout Russia. However, already now the government is discussing amendments to the law, allowing to create such territories in the Kaliningrad region.
Authorized body for TORs in the Far Eastern Federal District - Minvostokrazvitiya. The necessary changes have already been made in the regulation on the ministry. However, they do not envisage responsibility for achieving the goals of creating TORs in the Far Eastern regions, and it is not clear how the agency will coordinate the activities of executive authorities, local authorities, economic entities, including the Far East development institutions, the management company of the TOR, etc. Agreements with regional authorities, which are provided for by the law on TOR, are clearly not enough. And the absence of these provisions entails risks of inefficient spending of public funds.
- Perhaps the same regular audit could achieve a positive effect in setting up a transparency mechanism for financial budget spending associated with the construction of the Vostochny cosmodrome? How, in your opinion, can you prevent the theft of huge budget funds at such large facilities, when a huge number of contractors are involved in construction, and also the norms for spending materials and budget financing are overestimated by fraudulent methods?
- The mechanism of transparency of financing of capital construction was not created yesterday, it is a whole system of functionally responsible legal and officials. An example with the construction of the cosmodrome Vostochny is not the only one. We have many large construction projects financed from the federal budget, where abuses are possible.
By the way, it is this aspect that the Accounts Chamber checked in the FAU Federal Center for Pricing in Construction and the Building Materials Industry and in the FAU Glavgosexpertiza of Russia. These two organizations are key in the pricing and valuation of all of the largest federal-funded properties.
Of course, in the long-term process of capital construction, there are many links with corruption risks, but their primary source is the approved construction estimate. The same risks are contained in the procedure for placing an order and determining the contractor. At each stage of the construction cycle, there are mechanisms for acceptance, registration and payment for work performed. The conscientiousness of their execution is a subjective category, and officials of state customers are responsible for the irrational use of budget funds.
- The country's leadership is now paying special attention to the eastern vector of Russia's development, where the main mega-projects are being formed: the Power of Siberia gas pipeline, the Eastern testing ground - the reconstruction of the Trans-Siberian and BAM, the Vostochny cosmodrome, the construction of the VNHK NK Rosneft. Most of these projects will be implemented with significant government support from the federal budget. Isn't it better to audit such projects at the start, carefully calculating the ratio of the invested funds and the resulting effect, than then have underfunded, not completed construction projects and, in some cases, economically ineffective projects?
- The listed projects are of a strategic nature, designed for a long-term perspective and require significant resources, including public funds.
Since 2013, the federal budget has been formed according to the program principle, that is, it is clearly focused on achieving the goals of state policy. Expenditures and measures of state regulation on the projects you named imply "program" expenditures on budget investments, subsidies, up to the current maintenance of the ministries in charge of these areas. In fact, these large-scale projects are an integral part of state programs.
The practice of conducting an examination shows that the quality of state programs is largely determined already at the initial stage of work. Consistent implementation of the provisions of the Law on Strategic Planning and the Law on the Accounts Chamber in terms of the examination of state programs will reveal unreasonable or ineffective expenses based on the correlation of costs and benefits, as well as taking into account the assessment of possible risks of the implementation of these projects.
- The Chamber of Accounts conducted inspections in the sphere of housing and communal services, including resettlement of citizens from emergency housing in the BAM zone. What violations have been identified? Why is this problem not solved yet?
- Monitoring and control of the state of affairs in the housing and communal services sector is one of the main activities of the direction I lead, and the results of inspections are regularly reported to the Board of the Accounting Chamber.
The issue of resettlement of citizens from hazardous housing in the BAM zone was carefully considered in September 2014 following the results of an audit of the targeted use of budget funds allocated for appropriate measures within the framework of the Federal Target Program “Housing”. It was found that in the area of the Baikal-Amur Mainline, which includes the territory of the Republic of Buryatia, the Trans-Baikal Territory, the Amur and Irkutsk Regions, there is an acute problem of resettlement of citizens not only from housing recognized as emergency in accordance with the established procedure, but also from temporary buildings adapted for living in during the construction of the BAM. These buildings can hardly be called housing. And by law they are not. They are home to 15,1 thousand people, of whom about 4,5 thousand received temporary housing directly during the construction of the BAM.
In the opinion of the Accounts Chamber, in order to solve the problem of resettlement of citizens from temporary structures in the BAM zone, it is necessary to amend the current legislation and regulatory legal acts of the Government, as well as develop a subprogram for the resettlement of citizens from temporary premises within the framework of the current state program or for individual measures of the Federal Target Program "Housing" by identifying funding sources and executors.