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Private affair, public partnership
Yury Dyakov, the head of the Sakhalin branch of OPORA Rossii, a member of the All-Russian People's Front, told IA "EastRussia" what the relationship between government and business should be
- Yuri Ilyich, you are a person who is directly affected by the state plans for the Far East: your business is directly connected with the Sakhalin Region, you have lived here for many years. Which of the new projects seem to you the most promising?
- But, perhaps, it is the revival of the three ports and giving them the status of “free” (which the Sakhalin authorities are actively advocating for) will allow to revive everything lost with the help of investors?
- I think that the activity of the authorities is simply explained: they do not keep up with the President, who back in 2013 issued decrees, firstly, on the gasification of Sakhalin, and secondly, on fish exchanges. I think that's why they are in a hurry. But now the ships that enter the roadstead of our ports take about two weeks to complete. What is the point for foreigners to go there if the port of Busan is nearby, where you can register in a day, the conditions are better, and all the pollock and cod can be sold?
The Governor of Sakhalin Oleg Nikolaevich Kozhemyako is a person who has experience in doing business, as far as I know, he once bought a dying factory and began to repair his ships there. Now his son, who has his own fleet, is engaged in such a business. And I am even FOR - let them develop this industry under the patronage of the head of the region. He certainly understands her problems. The only question is how to find money and, most importantly, invest it wisely.
Sakhalin is a donor, and as a businessman, I can say: every penny should "spin". Tax payments from oil have come - let them pledge at least one ocean-going vessel with these funds. However, what is now being laid at the shipyards in Komsomolsk-on-Amur are vessels of the RS or MRS type, that is, they are intended only for coastal fishing. In the Amur Region, there are a maximum of SRTMs, they cannot solve the problem. And now, by the way, the population of pollock, herring, ivasi and flounder has been restored. And it is quite possible to ensure sufficiently large production volumes. When I worked in this area, we even had such a concept - "barter". We established contacts with the Americans, put our processors on them, and they trawled on small vessels, then handed over the catch to us, we processed it and sent it to the USA, to China or to the domestic market. Now this is impossible.
What exchanges, what kind of import substitution can we talk about, when out of all the bases where the fishing vessels were located, there is only power left
- And if we talk about Kamchatka in comparison with Sakhalin?
- Kamchatka has managed to retain at least some part of its fleet, and its example to others is science. There are large reloaders, and in Vladivostok, which load the capacities of the Nakhodka fishing port, transport products to other places. But this is minuscule. If we seriously want to develop our economy, we must put into circulation all the money we receive. Leave yourself the maximum
- In addition to the fishing industry, it is planned to develop agriculture in the Far East. How do you think things are going here?
- I can give you one example. On Sakhalin, they invested one billion three hundred thousand from the budget in the construction of a large pig-breeding complex in Taranay, built by the "Mercy Group" on the principles of public-private partnership. This is a subject of special pride, which is constantly talked about. They promised that they would flood the region with cheap pork; in all public speeches, the price sounded - 220 rubles per kilogram. Nevertheless, the price tag costs 407 rubles. And this pork is sold for a maximum of two hours a day, no matter how you arrive, it is about to be delivered, then it has already been sold ... On the market, such meat costs 460 rubles at retail, 430 in wholesale. I bring these examples to one conclusion: subsidies should return. This term itself does not mean at all that you can simply give money to some company and then observe how it “dissolves”. As soon as the subsidies run out, such businesses will die. I see no prospects either for Mercy or for greenhouse complexes built on the same principle as a pig-breeding complex.
As for the development of agriculture, instead of answering, I will give one more example. We are now with the ONF stood up for one person, a farmer. His name is Niyaz Abdulaev, he is Azerbaijani by nationality, but he has lived on Sakhalin all his life. He worked with his wife, who died not so long ago. His farm has a ready-made business, they deliver 90 tons of milk per year. He has everything, he bought the land and leased the pasture. However, now it is simply desperate. Around his farm there is building land that has been transferred from agricultural purposes, and individual residential buildings are simply adjusted to his farm. A two-story residential building is being erected directly on the dung heap. It is impossible to break through with complaints into the offices of power, they simply do not listen to him there, and I guess why and who is doing this. Niyaz fears that his farm will simply be burned to clear the site for individual housing construction, similar cases have already happened. Why does this happen? Why can't this person, who has already shown his abilities and capabilities, be given a chance to rise and not collapse? Build him a cowshed, he can lead a labor collective from
- As far as I know, you have faced the problem of allocating quotas for labor. Simply put, the Koreans who worked for you had to leave. Has the situation changed somehow?
- I was engaged in different types of business, including construction, and restaurant business, and agriculture. It was put on the brink of a crisis, because out of 250 people who worked for me, with whom we signed contracts, only eight confirmed their documents (the status of a legal work visa). I had to take them out in three batches, the first cost me 28 million ... That's how the situation changed.
On Sakhalin, business is developing only in those areas that are related to government procurement. It's offensive. If the roof needs to be repaired and a tender is announced,
- You are not only a businessman, but also a representative of a public organization. Do you manage to make your voice heard?
- In March, I wrote to the governor of the region (then still Alexander Khoroshavin) about urgent crisis measures. It's nice that Governor Kozhemyako recently remembered about the bitumen plant that I proposed to build and called the proposal “specific”. Let me remind you, I said that the prime cost of asphalt cannot be 8 thousand rubles without VAT per meter, this is obvious dumping. Such a price can only go through government purchases, when firms are trying to get an order at any cost. But, in reality, this means that half of the roads will be asphalted, and the contract will be signed “somehow”. Having our own sand and gravel (only the Smirnykhovsky limestone deposits are provided with it for 700 years), we may well not import bitumen by water transport.
In Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk we have about
Another sensational story is with tulip lamps, which were purchased for the city for 96 million rubles. But in our climate they will be blown away by the wind almost immediately. The city authorities claim that public listeners were held on this topic. We, for our part (ONF), could not find a single person who would be present at these hearings. And in general, I think this question would not have arisen at all if we, as in most civilized cities, had the post of chief architect. No professional would miss the installation of such "tulips". A small steamer can be built for 96 million. In addition, maintenance of unfortunate lamps will also cost about 90 million annually: they have to be installed in summer, dismantled in winter ... People do not even think about it. As well as over what it will cost us to open the widely advertised residence of Santa Claus, on which about 90 million would have been spent too.
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is unlikely to become “the most comfortable city” in the Far East any time soon. Is that within the "holiday square", the very center. And further to the outskirts, where buildings are in the style of "Shanghai" and 85% of unpaved streets - hardly.
- And how is the Sakhalin gasification program progressing (judging not by the reports, but by what you saw with your own eyes)?
- Not so long ago, at a meeting with the President, the head of Gazprom promised that 85% of the produced gas would be used for the internal needs of the island. I don't see the result yet. The most offensive thing is that we are in the position of a "shoemaker without boots." If we think in the context of small and medium-sized businesses, gas filling stations would be very profitable, and not just gasoline, as it is now. All small businesses or shops are served by small cars or Gazelles. Why not do it in the same way as in Crimea, where at each gas station there is not only a gas station, but also a gas tank? Then the production cost of small and medium-sized businesses will also decrease. However, everything is fine on paper. I spoke with one of the entrepreneurs, and he told me: they managed to bring gas only to the parent enterprise. "Everywhere there are a million departments, it is impossible to agree on anything with anyone, they are asking for money for connection." Although, in my opinion, this is where subsidies and support should be provided. Moreover, there is a presidential decree of August 2013, where everything is said exhaustively about gasification.
In pursuance of this decree, it is planned to launch one filling station by the beginning of 2016. So far, everything is only sprinkled with gravel. Immediate plans for the construction of such gas stations - to
- Is there a possibility that the creation of a new TOP on Sakhalin will help solve the problem?
- I am not against the idea of TORs, as they say, "we are for any kipish, except hunger strike." If not only the Sakhalin Region but also the entire country develops in this direction, great. But so far the project itself is rather narrow and obscure. He does not take into account that besides taxes, business has a lot of other problems that the territory of advanced development cannot and cannot solve. I think that these projects and many others should go out to a broad public discussion, and not be made by a volitional decision. So far, we have a lot at the level of declarations and projection. From the TOP or the fish exchange to the widely advertised "entrepreneur's card" (introduced by the "Support of Russia", which in fact does not work and does not give any benefits).
In addition, projects do not move by themselves, they are carried out by people. On Sakhalin, the issue of the personnel reserve is acute. Ideally, a competition should be announced for any managerial position, up to the regional government. And on conditions of competition, the most worthy candidates should come to high offices, “from the street”, and “not from the team” - but competent and competent.
OPORA Rossii and ONF in this respect are good discussion and organizational platforms for representatives of the middle class, entrepreneurs - a socially active stratum of society. The idea of a business ombudsman, supporting small and medium-sized businesses, works in Sakhalin, and although I imagined it a little differently. The actions of Mr. Titov and Mr. Brechalov did not disappoint me. At least, I myself turned to Anton Geth, who heads the section “For fair purchases” in the ONF. And I really hope to find support and return at least part of the business that was practically taken away from me.
We spent 100 million a year on cleaning Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. MBU allocated 576 million for this. We spent about 4 million rubles on the maintenance of dog shelters. And then, the Regional Duma adopted a law, according to which 5 million were allocated for these purposes, and soon another 35 million. How can this be explained? There is government procurement, there is a company that does work for a certain amount of money - why spend 11 times more? I raised a question about all this in the ONF. We are fighting.
In general, lately we have only been doing that we are waging some kind of struggle with varying success. 10 (!) Criminal cases were initiated against me, most of them were closed without bringing me to court. On the tenth, the court delivered an acquittal, I sued 700 thousand in material damage and 315 thousand in moral. I think I was one of the "isolated cases."
All this is good, if it were not so bad. Business should do business, and not endlessly defend its interests. If the authorities - including the new governor of the region - are able to assist entrepreneurs in this, I think, then it will be possible to talk about the success of all widely announced projects.