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The BUO was loaded by the president

The government of the Russian Federation was obliged to prepare proposals for the opening of a cargo and passenger checkpoint at the Bolshoi Ussuriiskoye

The item "1e" of the instructions of Russian President Vladimir Putin following the results of the last meeting of the State Council obliges the government to submit proposals "for implementing measures aimed at creating a cargo-and-passenger automobile checkpoint Bolshoi Ussuriysk on the state border between Russia and China." In 1, the two countries agreed to establish on the island checkpoint of passengers, but not cargoes, but the Chinese side has been insisting on the construction of a cargo and passenger border crossing point (PP) for several years. Camping there something in the Russian bureaucratic machine, stubbornly refuses to create an international window for cargo only 2016 km from Khabarovsk, find out EastRussia.

The BUO was loaded by the president
The idea to build a new checkpoint (BCP) for passengers and cargo on the Russian-Chinese border on the Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island near Khabarovsk has been actively wandering around according to official documents throughout the governorship in the Khabarovsk Territory of Vyacheslav Shport (came to power in 2009). The two countries divided the island approximately in half and agreed to jointly develop it under his predecessor, Viktor Ishaev, in 2004. But under the first Khabarovsk governor, who became the president's plenipotentiary in the Far Eastern Federal District in 2009, the border was demarcated: the border posts were solemnly opened only on October 14, 2008. All this time, the island was practically not mastered, and only an Orthodox chapel was built on it from the Russian side - a symbol of the fact that Russia will stand on Bolshoy Ussuriiskiy for a long time and firmly. True, in 2002 Mr. Ishaev also achieved the installation of a pontoon bridge to the island. The border fortified area, the Zarya agricultural enterprise and numerous summer cottages have existed on the island since Soviet times.

Vyacheslav Shport, having received the governor's chair after a short tenure as the Khabarovsk Minister of Industry, Transport and Communications, quickly entered the project for the development of Bolshoy Ussuriyskoye into his economic agenda. The second Khabarovsk governor in 2010 approved the regional approval of the concept for the development of the island until 2016, which explicitly stated "infrastructural development of the territory - including transport infrastructure facilities, a two-way cargo-and-passenger permanent automobile checkpoint across the state border, logistics facilities, and utilities." The passenger-and-freight BCP was then estimated at 2,57 billion rubles. They even allocated a plot of land with an area of ​​20 hectares for it, drew a beautiful visual project. With federal funds, with regional co-financing on Bolshoi Ussuriysky, they began to build a two-lane road bridge, however, not intended for mass transit of goods: its parameters allow passing cars with a load of no more than 12 tons per axle, that is, by no means the heaviest trucks.

The first (and so far the only) infrastructure facility on Bolshoy Ussuriysk worth 4,5 billion rubles. managed to pass it by 2013. No one then knew that the flood in August would flood almost the entire island and thereby radically disrupt the plans of the Russian Federation for its further development. The regional authorities also tried not to pay attention to criticism from plenipotentiary Viktor Ishaev. The latter periodically visited the state border on the island, pointing out that it was eroding it, and spoke in the spirit that "for the construction of a bridge to Bolshoi Ussuriysk, some citizens should be given the title of heroes of China": they say, after the establishment of a cargo-passenger passage to the PRC, the Far Eastern forest will pour over the bridge and fish, and vice versa - Chinese consumer goods, and the Russian economy will not benefit from this. Then, too, no one knew that in the midst of the flood, Viktor Ishaev would be removed, and the team of Yuri Trutnev would come to replace him. 

The flood on the Amur, during which almost the entire Bolshoi Ussuriyskiy went under water, brought the development of the island by Russia to a dead end. The 693rd presidential decree banned any construction on flooded areas without prior water protection. But the state program for the construction of bank protection hydrotechnical structures of the Ministry of Natural Resources presupposes protection from emergencies for the resident population, which is no longer on Bolshoy Ussuriysk. This means that it is formally impossible to envisage funds for dams in it. To resolve all problems with the Bolshoi Ussuriysk region, the region even suggested that the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East develop and adopt a special federal law on the development of the island with special conditions for land acquisition and development - by analogy with the construction sites of Sochi and the APEC-2012 summit, but the project got stuck in the approvals.

Funds for water protection are needed. If before the flood the dam project at the Great Ussuriysk was estimated at 2-3 billion rubles, then after it, according to the latest projects, to protect 6 thousand hectares of territory inside the island, it is necessary to build two GTS - 2,8 km and 5,8 km long. At the rate of 1 billion rubles. per kilometer is a minimum of 9 billion rubles. In total, on the shore protection of the Russian part of the Greater Ussuriisky, approximately half of 37 billion rubles required for the first stage of development is needed, the regional authorities estimated the scale of the problem in 2016. 

Of course, without attracting federal funding, the region will not draw the project - its consolidated annual budget does not exceed 85-90 billion rubles. by income. And to attract a private investor to build dams is completely on the brink of fantasy: after all, even for the construction of the checkpoint the investor has not come, as there is no mechanism for reimbursing such costs at the moment. An investor in the PP according to the current legislation can earn only indirect services, for example, the work of duty-free, bus stations or car parks. The mechanism of more interesting compensation for the investor and a special order of PPP could introduce the Federal Law on the Great Ussuriysk, but he did not even finish passing the agreements in the government.

In 2010, we repeat, the authorities of the Khabarovsk Territory assumed that the PP on the Big Ussuriysk will be cargo-and-passenger. Its throughput was to make up 250 trucks, 50 buses and 1500 people per day. "Transport companies already in the first year of the checkpoint work count for 500 thousand tons of cargo turnover, and in the future this figure can reach 1,5 million tons," - said in 2012 the deputy head of Khabarovsk minpromtrans Pavel Mysin. 

In the meantime, Russian and Chinese authorities have coordinated the coordinates of the PC at Bolshoy Ussuriysk and its passenger status - without the possibility of moving cargo. In December 2014, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev held a meeting of the commission on the development of the Far East, following which the Cabinet was given several assignments on the Great Ussuriysk. In particular, the authorities were instructed to prepare a draft concept for the development of the Russian part of the island, working on issues including "establishing and constructing a permanent passenger passenger checkpoint across the state border of the Russian Federation on the island of Bolshoi Ussuriysk using public-private partnership mechanisms." 

The passenger checkpoint is intended for individuals - tourists who move personal belongings in accompanied baggage, with a total weight of no more than 50 kg. The status of a cargo-passenger, was later recognized by the regional government, was not coordinated by "separate federal departments" - for security reasons. Therefore, in April 2015, the Khabarovsk Territory submitted a justification to Rosgranitsa, the calculations of which fixed the planned throughput of the border crossing point at 806 vehicles per day (105 buses and 701 cars) - this is 1,6 million people per year. 

This or that type of PP on the Russian-Chinese border is established through the notes of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the initiative of the Ministry of Transport. The Foreign Ministry is obliged to send a note to the Chinese Embassy in Russia proposing to make additions to the "Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the checkpoints on the Russian-Chinese state border from 27 January 1994." This is the procedure provided for in Article 3 of the intergovernmental agreement, which has the status of a bilateral treaty. The response note of the Chinese embassy on behalf of the government means that the countries have concluded an agreement on making additions to the basic agreement containing a list of checkpoints. 

Like the exchange of notes spring 2011 of the year allowed, for example, to establish on the border a new railway checkpoint "Nizhneleninskoe - Tongjiang", which has the number of checkpoints number 22. 23-th border point in September 2016 year after the exchange of notes became a checkpoint "Great Ussuri - Heisyatsidao." The agreement states that the checkpoint at Bolshoy Ussuriisk is open "for international passenger car traffic, as well as crossing the state border on passenger cars with a maximum number of seats not exceeding 8." 

The position of the authorities of the Chinese province of Heilongjiang, adjacent to the Khabarovsk Territory, has not changed in recent years: in the neighboring region they insist that the checkpoint at Bolshoy Ussuriysk should be a cargo-passenger checkpoint. In May 2015, at a meeting with Vyacheslav Shport, the CPC secretary of Wang Xiangkui province said: “I think that together with you, Mr. Governor, we should discuss the opening of a checkpoint for both passenger and cargo. Because the opening of such a checkpoint will play a very important role for the development of the economy of our regions. If there is only a passenger checkpoint, this will not allow us to match the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. " "It is possible to open a round-trip cargo-and-passenger flow from China and Russia - bilateral. If we can open such a checkpoint, it will allow us to create favorable conditions for the development of trade and economic cooperation. Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island is very close to Khabarovsk, only 20-30 kilometers Only Khabarovsk has such geographical advantages. We must work with you to make use of all the functions of this checkpoint, "he added.

"The concept of the development of Bolshoi Ussuriysk at the government level has not yet been approved. But the checkpoint has been included in the intergovernmental agreement. And since the last Eastern Economic Forum in September again raised the issue of the cargo-passenger status of the checkpoint, the justification for this status goes on," First Deputy Chairman of the Khabarovsk Government Yuri Chaika. Justification of the cargo-passenger PP at Bolshoi Ussuriysk, he recalls, was prepared by the subject of the Russian Federation back in the 2012 year. Now the data is updated - taking into account the needs of residents of the territories of advanced development (TOR). 

Current calculations give for the checkpoint through the Great Ussuri cargo base "from 1 million to 3 million tons per year," the official continues. For example, the GC "TechnoNIKOL", which has built a plant for the production of thermal insulation based on rock wool, at the top of the Khabarovsk plant, declares shipping to China via a new checkpoint up to 20 thousand tons of products per year - per 9 trucks per day. Now, according to the group itself, Khabarovsk plant can produce up to 50 thousand tons of insulation per year, and in China goes 8-10% of annual production. "The feasibility study also includes a variant of the transport corridor via the Lidoga-Vanino highway, it is necessary to build a border crossing point, it is necessary to build a border crossing point, the project will not be able to invest in a large initial investment, a private investor could invest in hydroprotection, in the mechanism of investment return.The work is complicated, but we need to move, "Yury Chaika is sure. 

Expert in the field of international investment legislation Dmitry Nozhenko, regularly on business trips to the Chinese part of the Great Ussuriysk, believes that the cargo and passenger crossing point on the island will "give a global effect" only if additional preferential regimes are established for the territory, for example, duty-free trade. So far, such initiatives have not been discussed by the Russian government, except for one - in December 2014 Dmitry Medvedev instructed to work out the issue of establishing a visa-free regime for visiting the entire island by tourists from the PRC and Russia. "After the introduction of an additional contingent of US troops to South Korea, for example, the Chinese left the duty-free zone at Inchon airport." If such a regime is introduced at the border crossing point on the island, extending to industrial and food products, Russia has a chance to create a huge capacity pad for trade, "- explains Dmitry Nozhenko. 

The Chinese side, he recalls, has already brought transport infrastructure to its part of the island: rail, road, and aviation — by spending billions of yuan. “Chinese partners could even invest in shore protection and infrastructure building on our side in concession mode,” Dmitry Nozhenko believes. “But this is possible only if the Russian side approaches the issue of developing the Big Ussuriisky as not just building a new checkpoint. but as in the national project of transboundary cooperation: with integrated measures and benefits. " 

"The island is unique in that Russia and China no longer have such areas that are provided with resources and are closed along the contour, which can be given special legal cover, to give special status.The PRC on its part of the Great Ussuriysk already begins to design a zone for trade and business development like a small Hong Kong, or Singapore, is completing bank protection, China is ready to build a "dry port" in conjunction with Russia, on our part we need some kind of revision and a new view of the Great Ussuri. the territory of cultural interaction, the territory of advanced development.It needs a separate management company with the powers of town planning supervision, possibly the zeroing of taxes and duties, and so on, "he emphasizes. 

Note that there are no different plans regarding the future of the Great Ussuriysk deficit: only the concepts of its development or their projects over the past 15 years have been proposed at least seven. Of the last objects mentioned in the list of instructions to the government of the Russian Federation in 2014 - a river port for organizing cruise and yacht tourism and the international research institute for the problems of the Amur. Previously, it was proposed to create a gambling zone and a racetrack on the island to attract Chinese tourists known for their love of gambling. It was also proposed to hold the Amur Far East Youth Forum on Bolshoy Ussuriysk, but after President Vladimir Putin proposed to accelerate the development of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the event was registered near the “city of presidential attention” - at the Kholdomi ski resort.
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