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What will the Year of Ecology bring to the Primorsky Krai?
How to maintain a balance between the development of production, industry, infrastructure, on the one hand, and nature conservation, compliance with environmental standards in construction, production and everyday life, on the other? The director of the regional department of natural resources and the environment, Alexander Korshenko, spoke about the ecology of the Primorsky Territory, problem areas and growth points in the field of environmental preservation in an interview with EastRussia.
- Alexander Igorevich, in Primorye, inbound tourism is actively growing, many are attracted by local nature. From your point of view, which major natural resources in Primorye need to be respected and preserved?
- By the ratio of the main territory to the special nature conservation areas, Primorsky Krai has reached the European level today. In our region 17% is the area under special protection, this is a zone of both federal and regional importance. It is 11 state nature reserve, 9 reserves, unique Botanical Garden, arboretum FEB RAS, 204 nature monument, each of which is unique. There are also yew groves and lakes with lotuses and water lilies, and Korean cedar, and unique coastal taiga, and geological sections, such as on the Russian Island and in the bays Novgorodny and Reid Pallada in the south of the Khasansky district. The main goal, of course, is the preservation of these monuments for use by their scientists, researchers, archaeologists.
- And tourists?
- Of course, these are the points of development of many directions in eco-tourism, sites for creating unique tourist products, which will be in demand not only by foreign nature lovers, but also by our compatriots who come from other regions. Primorye has an excellent base for creating a whole system of eco-tourism. By the way, Primorye is one of the few places on the planet where the Ice Age did not reach, and today, in terms of the number and diversity of flora and fauna, our region is one of the richest regions of the country. Our main task is to preserve this wealth. As an example, Arsenyev's camp near Ussuriysk or the recently created Bikin National Park, to the creation of which we put a lot of effort.
- How is it possible to create a new reserve in the modern realities?
- The decree on its opening was signed personally by the head of the Russian Government. There are a lot of questions about Bikin, the locals are suspicious of this initiative. They fear that their rights as small indigenous peoples may be infringed, that they will live harder, that they will take away traditional hunting places and so on. Therefore, organizing a public discussion, creating a justification, participating in the creation of a working group, we very seriously approached such issues and sent them to the Ministry of Natural Resources in order to change the law on specially protected natural territories. Our suggestions are accepted. Work is being carried out to fulfill the obligations assumed by the administration of the Primorsky Territory and the Ministry of Natural Resources so that the rights of small peoples living in the territory of the Bikin National Park are maximally preserved.
- At one time it was environmental motivation that was the basis for transferring Vladivostok's energy from coal to gas. Gasification has been completed for a year already. How do you evaluate the result for the city, for the population?
- In general, at the edge of the indicators of emissions of pollutants into the air have a tendency to decrease. Of course, first of all this was due to the reconstruction of the CHP-1 and CHP-2 in Vladivostok and their transfer to gas, as well as the modernization of the boiler houses in Ussuriysk. Due to this, the total reduction of pollutant emissions was 22,3%. This is official data.
I can say, and this is reflected in the annual report for 2015, that all environmental indicators in the region are stable, normal, and they have not deteriorated. All federal authorities, both supervisory and licensing, took part in the preparation of the report, including Rospotrebnadzor, Rosrybolovstvo, Primhydromet, and a number of others. In the language of statistics, the results of state monitoring related to the quality of the environment illustrate the stability of the situation with the pollution of atmospheric air and water areas. But at the same time, there is a tendency to a deterioration in the condition of rivers and soils of residential areas - those on which the maximum impact is exerted.
- And the waste?
- The main sources of pollution are extractive industry enterprises, enterprises for the production and distribution of electricity, gas, water and processing enterprises, forming in total about 95% of those wastes that are considered to be of low hazard: overburden, ash and slag waste, sludge, etc. Solid municipal waste , Which are formed as a result of vital activity, constitute no more than 2,15% in the total waste structure. But they tend to grow by volume on average to 2-3% per year. At the same time, the level of processing of solid municipal waste does not exceed 13%.
- Recycling will develop?
- In this area, there are advances and developments of companies operating in the region and already having experience in the practical implementation of selective waste collection and processing. There are investors interested in establishing a two-tier plastic processing plant, for example. The first level is the grinding of plastic raw materials to obtain a fraction of flakes. Such products are in high demand in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. The second level is the production of import-substituting products from the received raw materials - decking wood-polymer board. You can also produce products in demand on the market - geogrids, geonets, plastic fittings.
- Are there any systemic measures in place to develop waste processing in Primorye?
- Within the framework of the state program "Environmental Protection in the Primorsky Territory for 2013-2017", the development of a territorial waste management scheme has been completed. Based on the results of this work, the main parameters of the waste management system in the Primorsky Territory were determined. The location of inter-municipal complexes for the processing and disposal of solid municipal waste has been determined. And these sites, in fact, will be used for specialized investment projects - the processing of plastic, cardboard, wood, and other types of secondary raw materials. We also plan to form a network of industrial parks that will focus on the efficient use of recyclable materials. There is already an enterprise in the region for the production of building materials with the addition of solid waste, it has no analogues in the Russian Federation.
- What are the prospects for treatment plants? Over the past year, much has been said about the purity of the Golden Horn. Are specific mechanisms found how to bring Vladivostok's business card into order?
- We are doing this work with a number of specialized organizations. This section of the water area is of federal importance, but the city carries out the activities on the shore and in the water area. This means that this is also our area of responsibility - to put in order what has been subjected to very aggressive pollution for 150 years.
Ecologists note that the creation of the Free Port in Primorye, which borders on the southern coastal regions of Primorye, requires the creation of a more precise organization of a plan and the development of measures to protect the marine waters of the adjacent seas of the Peter the Great Bay. First of all, we will deal with the Golden Horn Bay, which, of course, is in a very deplorable state. This issue is under the direct control of the governor of the region, and we are actively engaged in it. In July this year, a federal law was adopted that defined what is the accumulated harm, objects of harm, and also identified participants in the process of objects of environmental harm. In the course of the seabed survey, a detailed calculation of the amount of pollution will be made, based on which the estimate for expenditures will be drawn up. There is also good news: the amount of sewage is gradually decreasing. This is due to the gradual commissioning of treatment facilities in Vladivostok. In addition, the reduction of the volume of contaminated wastewater is facilitated by the introduction of automated accounting methods at enterprises.
- Tell us about environmental projects, about the forum "Nature without Borders"? What tasks and goals does it pursue?
- The arrival in Primorye of large companies implementing their investment projects, including in the framework of the implementation of federal laws on territories of priority development and the Freeport of Vladivostok, will require the business of information openness in matters relating to the state of the environment and environmental safety. A good opportunity to be heard by the public and the environmental community for business representatives is participation in such large-scale events as the International Environmental Forum "Nature without borders". For ten years, the south of Primorye has radically changed and is now actively developing. The task of the forum participants is extremely clear - to find a balance between the development of natural resources and the need to preserve the unique nature of the Far East. The goal that unites us all is the preservation of the biodiversity of Primorsky Krai and the Far East and at the same time the development of production in the region in accordance with strict international environmental standards.
The focus of the forum, which has already become an annual event for Primorye, is fundamental for us. We want people to strive to live and work in Primorye, and we clearly understand that this can only be achieved by giving priority to environmental issues and improving the quality of life of the population. That is why the position of the governor of the province remains unchanged. We need to pay much attention to the ecological education of children and young people. I believe that representatives of the scientific community, the media and the environmental community of the region should render serious assistance in environmental education of the population.
I would like to note among the participants a large number of representatives of business and entrepreneurship. This cannot but rejoice: the forum is an ideal platform for building a working dialogue between government, science, business and civil society. This dialogue is going well, with positive results as a result. For example, I would like to note that more and more manufacturing industrial companies entering our region are listening to the opinion of the scientific community and environmental organizations, and this is a statement of fact.
- 2017 year is declared the Year of Ecology. In this regard, what are the plans, projects? What kind of mood will we enter this year?
- There are two main vectors here: the development of the protected system, ecology in general. And working with environmental “bads.” At the same time, the year will bring additional opportunities and incentives for the transition to a more efficient management model for responsible companies seeking to preserve the environment, paying due attention to it. We will continue to work in terms of fostering environmental culture among residents of the region, work with young people. ”The Department, together with the Russian Geographical Society - the Society for the Study of the Amur Region (OIAK) organized a local history lecture hall in the field of environmental protection and rational nature management. This is a series of educational and scientific educational lectures on the preservation of the unique natural heritage of the Primorsky Territory, the organization of ecological tourism in specially protected natural areas and the rational use of natural resources, organized to improve the knowledge of tour operators.
Korshenko Alexander Igorevich - Head of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Primorsky Territory. Born in Vladivostok, he graduated from DVIST with a degree in Accounting and DVPI with a degree in Jurisprudence. He also completed his postgraduate studies with a thesis "Organizational and technical conditions for the formation of a waste management system at the municipal and inter-municipal level." Has a PhD in Economics. From 2004 until his appointment to a new position, he worked as the head of the environmental protection and nature management department of the Vladivostok administration. On September 11, 2014, he was appointed Director of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Primorsky Territory. He was awarded the medal "For impeccable work", letters of thanks from the Governor of the Primorsky Territory, the Office of Rosprirodnadzor.