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Bonivour: Ruins of the last construction of the USSR and new hopes
How does the unborn city live in the taiga 30 years later
Photo: Linear units on Komsomolskaya Square in Khabarovsk. 21 May 1986 g
Nizhnetambovskoe, which is in 135 kilometers from Komsomolsk-on-Amur, is a village with a double bottom. It is not a question of bizarre megaliths on Shaman Mountain near the left bank of the Amur River. The village consists of two parts: in the first - ordinary houses: administration, school, post office, cultural center, medical center ... If you don’t know where to look, the second part is easy to slip through. Behind the river Halzan there are 54 cottages, built without a foundation on a pillow made of PAG (smooth aviation plate). She also laid out more than a kilometer of the road. Designed these houses, as eyewitnesses say, “on the knee”, a talented foreman Foschaev, one of the first builders of the city of Bonivur. In the middle of 80, Nizhnetambovskoye became the northern outskirts of the Komsomol construction strike. Defective slabs were barged down the river from several factories. On the construction of five-story building they were not suitable, but for single-story buildings were just right. Now the city, which does not exist, and itself is only part of the village, Zarechka, as its locals call it.
Photo: village first builders. Elena Kulakovskaya
“There are houses there, people live in them, a whole town. Now, by the way, swore at them! - the head of administration of the Nizhnetambovsky rural settlement of the Komsomolsky district of the Khabarovsk Territory Elena Kulakovskaya is outraged. - Cows poraspuskali, they go, the neighbors eat cabbage! I donate that it is necessary to feed. The memorial stone about the beginning of the construction of the city of Bonivur is at my house, and the construction began where I lived. I was 20 for years, I was just studying at a technical school in Khabarovsk and came for a vacation. January was (20 January 1986 of the year - the official beginning of the shock all-Union Komsomol construction - East Russia), so these landings we all landed, I warmed at home. It was very ambitious: they began to cut everything down, move everything, they built a hostel, a dining room. After the technical school I worked at the rybkoop as an accountant-auditor, I monitored the canteens, made up the menu - that was on my neck. There were a lot of people, they arranged dances in the evening. Life was! My husband, Nikolai Ivanovich Kulakovsky, was a carpenter-concrete worker who laid the first houses in the town. ”
Photo: Construction of a hostel for the All-Union Shock Komsomol Detachment named after the XXVII Congress of the CPSU. Archive
Komsomol members and BAM builders drove to the great all-Union construction site in 1986, some with the smell of the taiga, some with housing in it. At first, it was not allowed to take wives and children with them, they lived in trailers. They sent here, to the Far East, and those who spoiled the statistics of the police, - says the author released this fall a book about the city of bonivur Alexander Leonkin.
Photo: Alexander Leonkin
“I lived in Komsomolsk in a conscious age and did not know that the eighth city of the Khabarovsk Territory was built nearby. It's amazing! The first city that began to build the Komsomol is Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the last is Bonivur, and the distance between them can be reached on foot in a night, and we have a huge country. For the first time I learned about this great construction thanks to cycling. I began to collect information bit by bit, then there were 4 expeditions, serious work with archives, conversations with first builders. In 2011, we went to Nizhnetambovskoye in search of the “time capsule”, with a message from the Komsomol members of the past to their brothers in 2017 year (the year of the centenary of the Great October Revolution - East Russia). As a result, it turned out that the capsule is sewn into the foundation of a residential building, not to break it.
On stalker sites, continues Alexander Leonkin, then the phrase: "The city is fully guarded." But it was a delusion. “Bonivour was the working title, in honor of the hero of the novel by Dmitry Nagishkin, Vitaly Bonivur, based on which they later shot the film,” says the local historian. - In Primorye, there is the village of Banivurovo. The Russian Geographical Society in Vladivostok showed me a school certificate of this Vitaly Banevura. There are many versions, up to the fact that Banivur was killed by bytovuha because of the girl, climbed to the wrong one. There were also variants of names for the city “Youth” and “Youth”.
Photo: Alexander Leonkin na place unfinished industrial base HOLIVARY ON BONIVURO
What was Bonifur's epic file, and what would happen if it were completed?
“There would be a million agglomeration: Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Amursk, Solnechny, Elban, Selikhino, Bonivur on 350 thousand people and Komsomolsk-on-Amur on 500 thousand, I'm sure Alexander Leonkin. - I talked with the former minister of construction of the eastern regions of the Soviet Union, Alexander Babenko. He says that the whole thing was being pushed through by Alexey Cherny, the first secretary of the Khabarovsk Regional Committee of the CPSU. Several programs came together and money appeared. Although this all-Union construction was actually funded by the region. Imagine if the Amur Region would have been built by the Vostochny cosmodrome these days - that would be unthinkable. ”
At the same time, when the first street was being rented out in the village of Molodezhny near Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Alexei Cherny came and surrounded everyone: are you in the village with a toilet in the house ?! In other houses, the toilet was already done on the street - only the first were lucky. Such an ambiguous figure.
Photo: Wedding Komsomol first builders Bonivura. Archive
In the distant Bonivour carried scarce goods. True, at one time they got into the habit of the Komsomol construction of multi-deck motorships “30 years of the GDR”, “Semyon Dezhnev” with thugs from Komsomolsk, - for mash. There was a scandal, and the “shop” was covered up.
“There was a lot that was missing,” says Alexander Leonkin. - A letter came into my hands where electricians asked my relatives to send "cats" - devices to climb the poles. I also unearthed that in 89, the year the construction site was closed, the same city was designed in the same place, only with a population of 50 thousand people, with six factories with chemical production. There is an assumption that the second bottom of the nitrogen plant is saltpeter for the Amursk factories, that is, gunpowder! We have two factories in Elban and Amursk, cluster production. They said it was environmentalists who closed the city. But this is not true. It's just that the Soviet Union collapsed and hid behind ecology. The party could not say that the money ran out. And when the construction site was closed, the chief of staff of the Central Committee of the Komsomol Vladimir Burdakov grabbed all the protocols, plans of the city - there is a map the size of a sofa - and kept it all! "
Bonivur has a twin city on Yamal - Gubkinsky. Both were conceived as chemical giants. “If Bonivour were not on gas, but on oil, he would have survived,” the writer believes.
Over the four years that the construction was going, a little more than a thousand people came to Bonivour. Many settled in Nizhnetambovskom. Today, residents of the new aspirations - already on the All-Russian, and, perhaps, international construction, - the bridge from the mainland to Sakhalin and from Sakhalin to Hokkaido. If they launch this “project of an absolutely planetary scale,” as President Vladimir Putin called it, and start the railway along the Amur River, life will return to Nizhnetambovskoye. Today you can get here only on loose gravel road. There is a bus from Komsomolsk-on-Amur. At the councils, there were also rails, but the railway workers dismantled them in 2000, leaving 110 km. mounds.
HOPES FOR BRIDGE
As EastRussia already wrote, the approximate cost of work already now exceeds half a trillion rubles. The regional authorities made the future bridge crossing the central theme of their pavilion on the "Far East Street" at the fourth EEF. Oleg Kozhemyako (at that time the governor of the Sakhalin region) said EastRussia, that the project, which will connect the region with constant communication with the mainland of Russia, has no drawbacks. "The island throughout its history has always been difficult to reach from the point of view of the navigation period, the off-season, and storm conditions. Hence, the high cost of transportation in cargo containers. We could not get fresh food when we waited for the week to reload at the port of Vanino." stressed the governor.
According to him, the new bridge is both jobs for railway workers and the possibility of additional export supplies to the APR. "The country built in its time the Trans-Siberian Railway, which caused great disputes and doubts. Nevertheless, today thanks to this, the Far East has developed. The railway communication and any transport routes are difficult to overestimate. This is the ability to move people, goods, this is the community of the state, the world economy , the ability to integrate, the ability to live and develop. Neither trade, production, nor tourism is possible without transport links, "said Oleg Kozhemyako.
At a press conference on the results of the fourth WEF, Yuri Trutnev recognizedthat the economic justification for the construction of such a large infrastructure facility as the Sakhalin bridge is “a rather complicated process”, and “it is rather difficult to predict the full payback of the infrastructure facility”.
“As for the bridge, the process is equally complicated, it is heterogeneous. There are positions of people who say that the bridge will not pay off, the area is difficult to reach, the road is long. I adhere to a completely different point of view. In Sakhalin, the prices for building materials exceed the mainland -Three times. In a year, only the public sector of Sakhalin buys 90 billion rubles for the construction of construction materials, thus saving only Sakhalin can be, according to our estimates, no less than 40 billion rubles. that only the cost of construction and building materials will decrease, although this is also important. Many other effects arise. We will continue to argue with our opponents and prove our position, "said the Deputy Prime Minister. In Russian Railways, they made a statement that they do not expect to return the funds invested in the bridge transition earlier than in 26 years.
The final decision on the project has not yet been made, but the topic of connecting Sakhalin to the mainland has not been off the agenda for several months in dozens of villages in the Nikolaevsky direction. They are also waiting in Nizhnetambovskiy: who are the jobs at the new shock construction site, who, as heads of the settlements, benefit from civilization who will contribute to the appearance of this very work right on the spot.
“With the project of the bridge to Sakhalin, our main hope is not even the railway, but the fact that power lines will be pulled to Sakhalin, because our electricity is very expensive! - says the head of the administration of the Nizhnetambovsky rural settlement of the Komsomolsk district of the Khabarovsk Territory, Elena Kulakovskaya. - For entrepreneurs, it comes from a diesel power plant at 23 rubles per kW / h! And residents pay 3 rubles 10 kopecks. Who wants to build a business here? The able-bodied population, some in the city, some on watch ... As I understand it, they will build a depot in Yagodnoye, in Selikhino, where they will be based. And here the trailers will move. We have great distances! And with the bridge to Sakhalin, the Japanese will also come to us. Many of us go to the Shaman-stone (a natural monument of local importance "Amur Pillars" - East Russia). In general, we have a very beautiful river, plains, hills around. I love our village very much.
Photo: Village Nizhnetambovskoe. Elena Kulakovskaya
Elena Kulakovskaya believes that even the asphalt road to Nizhnetambovskiy would change a lot: "100% tourists would go." "The road and expensive electricity are the two main troubles that stop everything here. Plus, a gas pipe runs 10 km away from us. I have been asking you to cut us in for so many years. And although we have nowhere to work, there is a team that needs something." it seeks, a volunteer detachment that helps grandmothers, administration. People of Komsomol training, they participate in competitions, travel to villages, arrange concerts. There is a volunteer fire brigade. The village still lives! The population today is 814 people. Recently, together with residents we built 2 playgrounds, renovated the auditorium. One of our estates took the first place in the district. And if they built the city of Bonivur, it is still unknown what would happen to it, who would need these fertilizers today. And without Bonivur. everything would be if we had road, electricity and gas! " - says the head of Nizhnetambovsky.