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"More rights to labor mobility"
Deputy Head of the Russian Ministry of Labor Alexei Cherkasov on the role of the regions in attracting human resources
The V North Interregional Conference on Guarantees of Rights and Social Protection of Employees in the Far North and Equivalent Territories was held yesterday in Khabarovsk. Special correspondent of East Russia spoke with key participants of the forum organized by the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia. Deputy Minister of Labor of Russia Alexei Cherkasov - on the role of the regions in attracting personnel to the Far East.
In addition to social and labor relations as a whole, the ministry is also implementing individual projects in various areas. In particular, on June 5, a federal law was adopted, which I mentioned in my speech at the conference. It is associated with regional labor mobility. It establishes more flexible, more optimal conditions for attracting employers to regional labor mobility programs.
First of all, to make it more comfortable and acceptable for the regions of the Far East from the point of view of the participation of both employers and the region. And this law has a direct relation to the agenda of the conference in terms of attracting professional cadres to the regions and their consolidation.
It's not about increasing the funds that are allocated to the employer, their volume remained the same - 225 thousand rubles, and about simplifying the procedure for employers' participation - there are now fewer requirements for them. Previously, the terms of participation in this program were often quite tough. Debt, for example, the current, so as not to be, but it does not always happen. Now, not at the time of issuing the certificate, it will be, but only at the time of entering into the program. The capacities of the subjects themselves are expanding: they will choose employers themselves, determine the selection criteria and support measures for workers that these employers will have. And it will be easier to coordinate changes in the regional programs themselves. To change, for example, the professions that are necessary within the limits of the number, it is possible without agreement with the federal center.
- So, in general, the procedure was liberalized?
- Yes, that's right. And now it will be possible to attract workers not only from the territories of other regions, but also from the territories of the participants of the project itself. Now there is a ban, those subjects that are on the list, each other can not take workers - workers can not go to each other. Only from distant regions - not participants. Now such a ban is lifted. In principle, this may be migration from the Amur region to the Khabarovsk Territory, that is, from neighboring regions-neighbors.
- How actively do the regions participate in the program of labor mobility?
- If we bear in mind the development of funds, then we really have a certain saving there: we have not fully mastered it. But this is not the main thing. The main thing is that the jobs are busy, that there is no profanation. The activity is quite serious, probably, only budget constraints stop it. Because of this amount - 225 thousand - about two-thirds comes from the federal budget and a third - in the proportion of 150 to 75 thousand - is paid by the region. Not every region is ready to get involved in this work. In addition, it is necessary to adopt a regional program, prepare it, and it depends on how profitable and interesting it is for the subject itself. There is often a parallel story when it is easier and easier to attract a foreigner to certain types of work. And sometimes it is easier for both the governor and the employer to hire foreigners in their region.
There is no competitive principle as such. Here, within the framework of the program, it is determined in advance how much the subject needs in such and such specialties. That is, the plan - and how this plan is carried out. But if they do not fulfill it, it means that money is not being spent, neither regional nor federal. There are no hard and fast rules for monitoring efficiency. The region has tried it, if it is not satisfied, it means that it does not need it. There are no performance indicators, the program is voluntary.
- Specialists in which industries are in demand under the programs of labor mobility?
- If you take them by profession, they are workers in the shipbuilding industry. They are fitters, mid-level welders. And higher qualifications - those who are engaged in the construction of the ships themselves. 225 thousand rubles just go to help the worker when moving. This is compensation for spending in renting housing, renting housing, in 2017, this money at a time was an opportunity to start buying housing. Thus, the toolkit is expanding, the region itself can determine support measures.
- 225 thousand rubles - is it a lot or a little?
- We think that this is not enough. We went out with an offer to raise the amount to 1 million rubles, but this offer was not supported at the level of colleagues from the economic block of the government. It's not just the price of the matter. You can not, for example, just give a person an apartment, there must be some working conditions, you know, yes? This is quite an expensive thing. In addition, we do not have a market for social housing. After all, someone must buy or build this apartment. While these types of housing we have poorly developed. Here and in general in many regions, one must give impetus for the construction of this kind of housing.
- For the Ministry of Labor the outcome of this conference will be what?
- The decisions of the conference will be issued as recommendations, but they are always listened to by federal agencies and the State Duma. Evidence of this is heated debate on the inclusion of an item in the draft outcome document. If this paragraph was indifferent, then, probably, it would not have been. Always, even the recommendatory rate can be presented and said: look, we told you about this topic, but you did not. I would say that this is a recommendation with the principle of compulsion. Each raised topic should be worked on later, should not be left without attention.
With all the recommendations and suggestions we had the opportunity to get acquainted beforehand, this is a normal form of interaction. These are proposals for further expansion of guarantees, improvement of the situation of employees. They are given an assessment. Trade unions do not just insist on this, but on the basis of that practice.
- How to ensure a balance between the interests of business and the social rights of workers?
- The state is obliged to do this. It should act as a mega-regulator, which looks so that there is no distortion. On the one hand, guarantees should be provided as clearly as possible, unambiguously, on the other hand, employers should also have some preferences. You can not take someone and use the administrative command to solve this or that problem. This should be a win-win situation. And for employers, and for workers. Today, everything was focused on employment issues and the consolidation of workers. But it is necessary, I think, to look a little wider. After all, the goal is to bring Russia to the birth rate of 1,7. The territory of the Far Eastern Federal District even exceeds this figure. Here 1,88 in a number of regions, this is Sakha, Sakhalin for 2 - a good level of fertility. Therefore, last year the Far Eastern concept of demographic policy was adopted. In addition to measures to consolidate and involve demographic measures.
- Do you want to grow workers in the regions?
- Yes, to grow. And people will stay, because they will know that here they can receive appropriate support measures and self-realization. Effective regional support programs are needed. This is also an important factor. Today, too, there were words about the need to create a comfortable environment. A person needs not only a decent salary, but also a comfortable environment, social infrastructure: a kindergarten, a day nursery, a school, the organization of leisure and leisure. Therefore, this is a comprehensive solution. But the format of today's conference is the focus on personnel issues.
In Soviet times, the northerners were one of the highest paid categories of citizens. But the structure of the economy has changed, the state does not determine the market and wages. The market determines, and the limits of state influence are regulated. The minimum payment requirements exist, but it is impossible to completely influence the commercial sector.
- Will federal support be provided to the regions in order to ensure minimum payments in the northern regions?
- Support already provided. First, more than 100 billion rubles was allocated for salary increase, and secondly, 20 billion for balanced budgets, and in March - 16 billion for raising the minimum wage from May 1 and for the implementation of the decisions of the Constitutional Court. When the court's decision was taken, the money for its execution was not laid either in the federal or regional budgets. Had to help the regions. Next year everything will be laid and envisaged.