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Far East under the growing export flows need a new locomotive
The need to renew the locomotive fleet in the Far East was announced at a meeting with locomotive equipment manufacturers and repair organizations held in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The event was hosted by Oleg Valinsky, Vice President of Russian Railways - Head of Traction Directorate. The exporters' plans will no longer be able to fulfill the Soviet diesel locomotives, which are in the majority at BAM. EastRussia studied whether a special type of diesel locomotive is needed, what does big data have to do with it, and whether a nuclear-powered diesel locomotive will appear on Russian railways.
New reloading complexes are being created in the Far Eastern ports. So, if in 2016, about 27 million tons of cargo were delivered by rail to the recipients of the Vanino-Sovgavansky junction, then the consignors' application for shipment may exceed 2025 million tons by 103. As noted by. Yury Fedorov, Director of the Institute for Economy and Transport Development, according to calculations, to ensure the growth of freight traffic on the railways of the Eastern Polygon in 2018-2020, 589 freight locomotives, including 338 diesel locomotives, must be purchased.
Replenishment is necessary not only due to increased transportation, but also aging of existing equipment. If the electric locomotive park of the Far Eastern road has been completely renewed by the locomotives of the series EKSNUMKK "Ermak" on the Transsib for the last ten years, then at the BAM the rates of rearmament were not going at this pace. At present, diesel locomotives of the 5TEHNUMX series, which were produced during the Soviet period, are the basis of traction rolling stock. Although most of them have undergone modernization at the Locomotive Repair Plant, the fleet performance leaves much to be desired.
Old diesel locomotives are much inferior to modern analogues. Recent tests of locomotives 2TE116UD, produced by Lugansk diesel locomotive plant in Ukraine, showed that they exceed 3TEXMUMMK in a number of parameters. Experienced trips took place at the Berkakit-Tynda-Skovorodino section. Diesel locomotives 10TE2UD conducted 116 thousand trains, as a result, only one refusal was allowed and one locomotive entry for unscheduled repairs. Although the weight of the composition with the two-section machines was 1 t - 5200 t less than with the three-section 400ТЭ3М - the first showed better reliability of operation at much lower operating costs.
A more complicated situation with the diesel locomotive was formed on Sakhalin. The average age of the locomotives TH16 there is about 45 years. It affects not only the aging of technology, but also the problems with spare parts for them. In particular, the St. Petersburg plant "Zvezda" stopped mass production of diesel engines M756A for this locomotive. "We order them individually. The price is growing, unfortunately, it has almost doubled in a year, "says Alexander Akulov, head of the directorate for repair of traction rolling stock of Russian Railways. Difficulties arise with the hydraulic transmission of the diesel locomotive - today it has to be repaired at the Kaluga plant "Remputmash". Taking into account the remoteness of the enterprise from Sakhalin, the need to manufacture spare parts, the turnaround time of the unit reaches half a year.
To date, the Ludinovsk locomotive locomotive plant (LTZ, part of the Sinara group) has developed a new diesel locomotive TG16M for the island highway, four samples have been created. But as technical director of LTZ Igor Senichenkov admitted, the locomotives revealed many structural flaws, mainly revealed due to the climatic features of the island. Now the manufacturer is working on their elimination. As previously noted in the "Sinara", since the TG16M is equipped with modern units and assemblies, such as the hydraulic transmission of the German company Voith Turbo, it will be able to efficiently conduct freight trains of a larger mass.
Not only economical, but also a powerful freight diesel locomotive is also needed for the Baikal-Amur Mainline. Yuri Fedorov recalled that due to the modernization program of the BAM and Transsib by 2020, the railroad workers should ensure an increase in cargo traffic by 66 million tons to the base 2012 year, including by increasing the weight standards of trains - to 7100 tons. the entire length of the non-electrified part of the BAM from Taksimo station to Vanino (the total length of the route — more than 6000 thousand km) was conducted with the 2,8ТЭХNUMXА “Vityaz” diesel locomotive a few years ago during the experiment. To improve the regular movement of such trains, infrastructure modernization continues on the road.
Meanwhile, Bryansk Engineering Plant (BMZ, part of Transmashholding) has developed a three-section diesel locomotive 3TE25K2M for BAM, for increased weight standards. Now the machine passes certification tests. This year, the locomotive should be relocated to the BAM for performance testing. If successful, they plan to organize a continuous movement of trains to 7100 tons.
As explained in BMZ, the diesel locomotive 3TE25K2M is based on modern technical solutions. For example, as an engine in the construction of a locomotive, a diesel engine with increased power characteristics is used, which ensures an economical fuel consumption. Also new, more reliable in comparison with the previous solutions, security, video surveillance, registration and monitoring of parameters were applied, a microprocessor control system with better characteristics was developed. In addition to the fact that 3TEX25K2M will become a more powerful locomotive, it will have a greater inter-repair run, says Vladimir Krivonosov, first deputy head of the Russian Railways' thrust department, which will also save the operating locomotive depot.
Of course, the transition to mass production of new machines will take more than one year. Therefore, domestic manufacturers offer technical solutions to improve the efficiency and reliability of the existing fleet of diesel locomotives. In particular, “WUA Technology” has developed the recorders of the parameters of movement and automatic driving of the RPDA-T. The equipment can be adapted to diesel locomotives of various series. Recorders are designed to measure the basic parameters of the movement, the operation of all the main systems of the locomotive, the actual execution of the schedule, the consumption of diesel fuel, etc. “The main focus is on diagnostic capabilities, which greatly facilitate the work of service personnel when locomotive failures are detected,” says Dmitry Tikhonov, general director of AVP Tekhnologia LLC. The RPDA-T recorders will be serviced by trained locomotive depot service specialists in Tynda and Komsomolsk.
At the same time, a truly unique technology for providing non-electrified railways with diesel traction is being developed today by the Government Agency for Technological Development in cooperation with JSC "Experimental Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering named after II Afrikantov" (JSC "Afrikantov OKBM") and JSC "Central Design Bureau transport engineering "(TsKB TM" JSC). Speech - neither more nor less about diesel locomotives on nuclear power. According to Vadim Kulikov, chief engineer of ANO "ATR", a nuclear diesel locomotive is exactly the type of transport that would allow covering the Russian north with an efficient network, offering cost-effective logistics to mining and construction companies. “Our country has nuclear icebreakers, nuclear submarines. A nuclear diesel locomotive is a highly developed solution that will show high fuel efficiency, will give a significant economic result for many industries, and will have a significant export potential. And the Baikal-Amur Mainline today is an ideal testing ground for the application and testing of new technology, ”says Vadim Kulikov.
The locomotive with the nuclear traction system is equipped with all modern systems of technical and transport security, including an innovative dynamic monitoring system. At the same time, the main advantage of the nuclear tractor ANO ATR sees in fuel efficiency. "The maximum efficiency of fuel using thermal tractors is 20-30%, and this is a good result," Vadim Kulikov continues. - In the cold, the engines are not switched off, the locomotive is operating on the line, or it is on the siding. The nuclear plant has another principle - it allows to bring efficiency up to 100% without additional costs and without compromising the safety of operation. "
Meanwhile, in Komsomolsk plans to open an engineering center LLC "Locomotive Technology" ("LocoTech"). "We want to place a group of engineers there who will work with the reliability of complex equipment. We have developed enough tools for this, "said Alexei Belinsky, the general director of LokoTech. According to the head of the corporation, this group of engineers will be small for the first time. It is planned to increase it under demand. The partners of this project will be a number of companies. Among them will be those who are engaged in the analysis of large data (big data) and predictive analytics.
“Thanks to the collection of big data from technical devices, the use of modern algorithms, we can find nontrivial dependencies between the modes of operation of components of a node or another complex mechanism and predict when based on anomalies when this mechanism will fail,” says Alexey Belinsky. - Based on this, you can greatly reduce the cost of repairs, increasing its reliability. Because we will know that the nearest repair needs to be repaired to a greater extent so that this node will not fail until the next scheduled type of repair. ”
At the same time, the engineering center in Komsomolsk will not be limited to the needs of one locomotive farm. "We want our competencies to be in demand in related areas," explained Alexei Belinsky.