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Anti-immigrant: mood or control
There are no problems with migrants in Yakutia - official position
More than two months have passed since the anti-migrant rally in the capital of the national republic that was mass in modern history of Yakutia. Regional media and social networks about this event seemed to have safely forgotten, and the problems seemed to be absent. But as it turns out - I did not forget the business. And the lack of hands can affect the prices of goods and services, and their availability.
Locals do not want, visitors are afraid
Not only in Yakutia, but throughout the country, migrants are usually occupied in certain niches that local residents cannot always occupy. Migrant workers mostly fill many “not prestigious” areas in the labor market with difficult working conditions, which are not always accepted by local ones. Entire sectors of the economy are developing at the expense of foreign migrants. A good example is the construction, the growth of which is associated with the use of cheap labor from abroad.
Against the background of widespread anti-migrant perturbations, the thesis that "we will run through these — who will work?" This also leads to the question: is the local population capable of providing itself with working hands — janitors, sellers, drivers?
For example, with wage workers in agriculture in Yakutia, the problem has always been acute, and after the March events it has worsened. This is confirmed by the example of the Yakut farmer Arthur Em. The territory of the UE family farm occupies more than 200 hectares and provides fresh products to residents of the capital and nearby settlements.
Permanent workers are about 20 people, but at harvest time, farmers attract up to 200 assistants. Arthur Em says that the locals are not very willing to work on the farm. Mainly visitors from other regions are ready to work in the field and greenhouses.
“In the field of agriculture, in our case in the field of agricultural production, personnel problems have always been. In Yakutia, this is seasonal work. People are reluctant to come to such a business, because everyone needs stability - getting a salary only in the spring-summer season without a social guarantee is also not always good, ”explains the farmer. - And in connection with the changes, we feel that this issue has become even more difficult. The percentages of 20 from our employees are residents of Central Asia. Now people who have previously worked in the fields are going to other countries, for example, to Turkey, where work there is not seasonal, but year-round. ”
It is clear that migrants are cheap labor. Neither the northern coefficients, nor the passage, or any benefits. Are the townspeople ready, buying a conditional cucumber from a farmer, to pay double price for it just because it will be collected not by the hands of a migrant, but by a local resident?
The fact that the March unrest ricocheted on business is a fact. In small organizations that provide various services to the population - let us take, for example, the capital's beauty studio, specialists began to leave.
“Despite the fact that our sphere of activity is not included in those areas of the economy that were limited, we also felt a staff drain,” says the owner of a beauty salon in Yakutsk. - Immediately after the spring rally, two employees quit their jobs - foremen who came from Kyrgyzstan, went back to their homeland. Parents and relatives called the daughter and son and insisted that they change their place of residence, because it became unsafe in Yakutsk. Many say that “it is profitable for business to hire newcomers” - supposedly, they can be paid less, they are more industrious and much more. Personally, I always appreciate one important indicator - the professional qualities of the craftsmen. The choice of employees was never based on their citizenship, let alone nationality. "
How the government first headed and then put out a protest
Recall in brief the March events (EastRussia wrote about them in detail in the material "Yakut outbreak"). In Yakutsk, 16 March, a crime occurred: a migrant from Kyrgyzstan raped a local resident in a car. The next day, a spontaneous rally was held in the city (despite 30-degree frosts). A day later - March 18 - already on the initiative of the authorities, a many-thousand people’s meeting was held in the Triumph sports complex. The event was attended by the head of the republic Aisen Nikolaev and the mayor of Yakutsk Sardan Avksentyev. Speaking to the audience, Nikolaev delivered a vivid speech, promising to restore order.
The information field after the rally was “sausage” for another week and a half — information about some pogroms, persecutions of migrants, and calls for disassembly were thrown in and out. Most of the messages turned out to be fakes.
The discussion of the March rally subsided almost immediately after the head of Yakutia signed a decree prohibiting hiring visitors in the 33 areas of labor. This document establishes that, among other things, migrants will not be able to engage in wholesale and retail trade, car repairs, construction, courier delivery, as well as work as drivers of public transport, taxi drivers, cafes and restaurants. However, almost immediately it became clear that this decree does not apply to migrants from Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Armenia (since these countries are members of the Customs Union). And there was nothing new in the decree - earlier a similar document was signed by the predecessor of Aisen Nikolayev, Egor Borisov. But the informational theme worked - the situation as a whole calmed down.
That is why it is interesting what measures the government of Yakutia intends to take, being already outside the public pressure. And the work is quite dense. Thus, on May 27, Deputy Chairman of the Yakutia Government, Alexey Podrukov, gathered officials to consider the implementation of the Migration Policy Concept of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) for the period 2019-2022. The document managed to be signed a year ago, before the dismissal from office, Yegor Borisov. His government began to implement in 2018, logically coinciding with the Year of Promoting Employment. Due to this, in 2018, the authorities wanted to ensure a reduction in the unemployment rate to 7%, to ensure the identification of informal employment and the legalization of labor relations for at least nine thousand people.
However, in fact, in 2019, the Interdepartmental Commission on the Implementation of the Migration Policy of Russia in Yakutia recognized problems with the streamlining and strengthening of work on migration accounting. So, Aleksey Struchkov instructed to work on the systematization of the registration of foreign citizens arriving in the republic. In addition, one of the points of the protocol of the commission was the adoption of additional measures aimed at strengthening control over the activities of employers in attracting foreign workers and countering the illegal labor activities of foreign citizens.
These are fairly large numbers. According to the results of 2018, 32,5 was given to thousands of foreign citizens for primary migration registration in Yakutia, for 22,8 thousands of them the purpose of entry is “employment”. And this is nothing less than 3% of the population of the whole Yakutia. Citizens who arrive in Russia in a visa and visa-free order can work in the republic either on the basis of quotas on the proposals of the regions, or on permits of the territorial government authority on migration issues in Yakutia as foreign workers - qualified and highly qualified specialists.
The very concept of the migration policy of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) for the period 2019-2022 was approved by a decree of the head of the republic (at that time Egor Borisov) in May 2018. As a result of the implementation of the concept, it is planned to reduce migration losses, reduce the coefficient of tension in the labor market, reduce the share of foreign labor in total employment, reduce unemployment. However, it appears that the concept events already require adjustments.
Police statistics indicate stability
At the request of the agency EastRussia, the Ministry of Internal Affairs reported that preventive and other work in the field of migration is carried out on a regular basis.
“From 9 to 15 in May, the first stage of the operation“ Illegal Migrant ”was carried out in the country, including in the republic, said the department for migration of the Ministry of Interior in Yakutia. “According to the results of the verification measures, 126 administrative offenses were revealed for violations of the immigration laws.”
Earlier, from April 22 to 28, the police conducted the second stage of the “Fictitious Registration” preventive operation, where they revealed 55 administrative offenses and 24 as evidence of a crime in the field of migration.
The press service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Yakutia believes that, in general, there is a stable situation in the sphere of interethnic relations in the territory of Yakutia.
According to the Department of Entrepreneurship, the consumer market, the development of tourism and transport of the Yakutsk City Hall, for 2019 a year 47 trips were conducted to facilities with signs of illegal entrepreneurship. The analysis of trips confirmed the absence of cash registers or the absence of strict reporting forms in catering establishments, pubs, and car-care centers. The tax officers drew up reports on 25 violations to be corrected as soon as possible.
Raids showed that non-compliance with sanitary norms, in particular, the lack of toilet facilities for staff, personal sanitary books among employees, violation of food storage rules, etc., often occurs at food service points.
The controlling authorities were able to bring the case to court and close the cafes Kyrgyzstan, Doner Shawarma, Shawmaster and the Socle bar from 30 to 90 days until the violations were eliminated. Part of the business is the local Rospotrebnadzor. According to the head of the department Svetlana Vasilenko, field law enforcement activities are planned on an ongoing basis.