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It is believed that the Far East is not very suitable for the normal development of agriculture due to harsh climatic conditions: a significant part of its territory is located in the field of the Arctic, subarctic and marine climates, which limit the possibilities for growing different crops.
Meanwhile, the prospects for plant growing in the Far East are quite good, given the dependence of northern regions on the importation of vegetables either from other parts of Russia or from China. In addition, the Far East is geographically close to the giant Asian-Pacific food market, where consumers are about half the population of the entire globe.
The area of arable land in the Far East exceeds 2 million hectares, hayfields and pastures - is about 1,8 million hectares. Agricultural land is concentrated in the Amur and Primorsky Territories, to a lesser extent in the Jewish Autonomous Region and the Khabarovsk Territory. This, of course, is slightly compared to the European part of Russia, however, the population is much smaller. However, the expansion of arable land in the Far East goes - albeit slowly, but still true. In particular, this year Primorsky Territory plans to increase arable land by 10% - up to 450-460 thousand hectares.
Of course, the free land situation for agricultural activities in the Far East is far from ideal. For example, in the central and southern parts of the Amur Region, fertile lands are mostly occupied; free land is less enough only in the north of the region. In the Jewish Autonomous Region, there is even less land suitable for crop production. In Kamchatka, the situation with the land is even more complicated: try to grow something, if there are volcanoes on one side and the sea on the other.
Quite a hassle to potential investors can deliver and not much-developed transport infrastructure: the density of roads and railways in the Far East is the lowest in Russia. Plus the high cost of fuel and energy. And the relief is not smooth everywhere.
However, in recent years, one interesting trend has emerged: in the Far East, the construction of greenhouse complexes is gradually being promoted. The prerequisites for this are created not only by the dependence of the northern regions on their supplies from outside, but also by the formation of advanced development territories (TOR) in the Far East.
For example, it is planned to build three hothouse combines in tomato, cucumber and lettuce in the Kamchatka. Similar complexes are created or will be created in other TOPs, the benefit of the power of the regions in which they are located, are aimed at attracting investors from Russia or from abroad.
And investors are going, at least take a greenhouse complex "JGC Evergreen", whose first stage was built with the participation of the Japanese JGC Corporation in the TOP "Khabarovsk" in 2015. Today there is a construction of the second stage, it should be put into operation in September this year.
Interest in the creation of combines for growing vegetables in the closed ground in the regions and the collapse of the Far East is the same as that of Japanese companies, and Chinese and South Korean. And it's not surprising: the Far East is in the zone of their strategic interests.
But wherever investors come from, they will have to find suitable areas, equip foundations, build greenhouses. And this is where the domestic aluminum industry can contribute.
Long enough for the construction of greenhouse complexes in Russia, it was customary to use galvanized rolling, which is considered a cheap material. At the present time, only the power frame of industrial greenhouses has been made of galvanizing, while the remaining components (translucent structures, gratings, trays) are made of aluminum profiles.
So far, greenhouse complexes using aluminum are being built in extremely small volumes: last year, only about 150 hectares of them were erected in Russia, and more than half of the greenhouse structures were imported. This is due to the lack of comprehensive solutions on the part of domestic producers - along with greenhouses, they do not offer the technological equipment needed by farmers - and their orientation towards the use of rolled steel and structures.
In reality, in Russia, it is possible to annually introduce 400 ha and more greenhouse complexes of "winged metal", since it is possible to build them on inconvenient sites, which are full in the Far East.
The reader will involuntarily object: will not it be necessary to carry aluminum profiles and structures for greenhouses if they are massively built in the Far East? After all, the main factories for the production of the same profiles are located mainly in the European part of Russia, there are several and closer - in Siberia.
Of course, the path will not be close. It should not be discounted that aluminum structures by weight are lighter than steel ones, therefore, it will be easier to carry them. In addition, they are no less durable and reliable.
Thus, the active construction of greenhouse complexes using aluminum in the Far East will help solve several problems. First, with their help, it will be possible to fully provide the residents of the Far Eastern regions with locally produced vegetable products. Secondly, to refrain from importing it from the PRC: the quality of Chinese vegetables often leaves much to be desired, despite the tempting cheapness, and scandals over the high concentrations of harmful chemicals in them are not uncommon in the former Celestial Empire. Third, to strengthen the food security of our country as a whole. Fourth, to expand consumption of "winged metal", providing additional orders of Russian manufacturers of aluminum profiles and structures.
And if things go smoothly, in the future, the Far East may turn from an importer of vegetables into an exporter of vegetables: as already noted, there is a huge market in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region at hand.
Fairy tale? May be. And why not make it happen? All in our hands.