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Alcohol by demography
Alcohol abuse has become one of the main causes of death in the DFO
Regions of the Far East should more actively fight against the alcoholization of the population, experts say. The solution to this problem, in their opinion, can be the key to solving the demographic issue in the macroregion. This topic was discussed by experts and officials of relevant ministries during the V All-Russian Conference "The demographic development of the Far East", organized by ARADK together with the government of the Magadan region and the Ministry of Eastern and Eastern Development. The federal experts interviewed by EastRussia are convinced that regional leaders need to be tougher in terms of bans, and officials in turn believe that the population, especially in remote communities, should have an alternative to alcohol in the form of work and leisure.
Commemoration of self-realization
Federal experts point out that excessive drinking is one of the main problems not only for the Far Eastern Federal District, but also for the entire country. Particularly vividly, the problem is visible when analyzing the mortality of men of working age, where demographers note a serious failure.
“We are losing people because of alcohol, tobacco, destructive behavior, poor nutrition. Unfortunately, people with alcohol addiction often do not find an alternative for themselves in their place of residence, they do not see or do not want to see opportunities for self-realization. But those who can be removed from the influence of alcohol, quite a lot. And our information and communication campaigns are aimed specifically at this audience. We understand that we need to deal with elements of destructive behavior from an early age, so we are trying to lay the right attitudes in a person. In particular, together with the Ministry of Education of Russia, we began a systematic work on immersing the subject of health care in preschool institutions and schools. There is also a point of contact with the 12 + audience, ”said Alexey Kiselev-Romanov, director of the department of public health and communications at the Russian Ministry of Health.
According to him, the regions should conduct a more stringent policy in limiting sales of alcohol. For example, the federal law “On state regulation of the production and circulation of ethyl alcohol, alcoholic and alcohol-containing products and on the restriction of consumption (drinking) of alcoholic beverages” gives the regions wider powers than those they use. Yakutia is not embarrassed to use it - there is completely prohibited selling alcohol in some localities.
Another problem that, in the opinion of the representative of the Ministry of Health, is for the authorities of the Far Eastern regions to solve is to actively pass alcohol in the DFO through the EGAIS system in order to track its sales. This is confirmed by a number of concomitant factors that directly or indirectly indicate that alcohol consumption in the region is high. About this, for example, says mortality from external causes.
“Even in the not very unfavorable in comparison with other regions of the Far East - Magadan, the mortality of men of working age is 994 per person per 100 thousand population, with the average Russian index 708. The region should approach this level by 2024. Taking into account the priority of the development of the Far East, the positive dynamics of this indicator should go with a big step, ”the expert is sure.
The situation is more complicated with the indigenous peoples. They have a specific feature - the absence of an enzyme that breaks down alcohol. According to experts, because of this, many immediately step into the second stage of alcoholism.
“In the context of especially the northern municipalities, it is necessary to reach every person, to understand the reason for this behavior. Point work is important here, ”sums up Alexei Kiselev-Romanov.
Anti-alcohol occupational therapy
DFO regions struggle with alcoholization of the population in different ways. The Kamchatka Territory in its struggle with this problem largely relies on universal methods that are widespread throughout the country. At the same time, local officials do not want to put pressure on restrictions.
“Speaking of restrictions, it is necessary to understand that regional authorities do not have the authority to regulate and circulate alcoholic beverages. We have the authority to control the sale of alcohol, including when complaints of the population are received about counterfeit goods, but we cannot simply forbid the sale of alcohol, we cannot restrict the freedom of business. Guided by federal legislation, it is in our power to limit the time of sales, to establish certain days when such products cannot be sold, and these standards are met, ”said Yevgeny Merkulov, Minister of Social Development and Labor of Kamchatka Krai.
According to Yevgeny Merkulov, one of the tools for the prevention of alcoholism among the population, including on the peninsula, can be not carrots, but carrots - the expansion of measures to support residents, for example, through a social contract. In this case, the recipient of such a measure should be assigned increased responsibility.
“Now the country is implementing various mechanisms for raising the standard of living of the population. For example, such measures as a social contract, when on the basis of the concluded contract the family receives some financial resources for the implementation of the project, for example, the organization of a subsidiary farm. The recipient, in turn, undertakes certain obligations. And now many regions are beginning to expand the conditions for obtaining this type of support. For example, if there is a person abusing alcohol in the family, he should be "encoded." We, in turn, are now considering such a condition for concluding a social contract, ”the head of the ministry notes.
A social contract as an additional comprehensive measure can help solve the problem of employment in rural areas, because it is often because of a lack of work or simply unwillingness to work that people are drawn to the bottle. State support can fix this. For example, a family may buy a cow, a bird or build a greenhouse for a social contract (today the amount of support can reach 100 thousand). Private households will help to achieve self-sufficiency at the level of a regional subsistence minimum for all family members.
For sports and propaganda
The leaders of the rating regions with a large number of people who consume alcohol, constantly appears Magadan region. However, regional officials say that the region is in the process of reducing the level of alcohol consumption, which is helped by the prevention of a healthy lifestyle. Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Magadan Region Tatiana Savchenko in conversation with the correspondent. EastRussia expressed confidence that this work should start with young people.
“I worked for 20 for years at the university, we invited various doctors to lectures that told students about the consequences of drinking alcohol and smoking, and the students reacted very vividly to everything. Now the government will rely on it, supporting preventive work in various institutions, as well as attracting youth volunteers for this, ”Tatyana Savchenko notes.
She adds that today, among the Magadan youth, there is a desire to play sports, and the fashion for socialization through alcohol and tobacco is a thing of the past. Now several sports facilities are being built in the region, and new sports grounds have been opened in all the municipalities.
But in the tightening of bans for the sale of alcohol, the official does not see the point. In her opinion, this will not solve the problem, although it is necessary to minimize the sale of alcoholic beverages.
“There is an active position of the governor in this regard. We need to control this issue, from the quality of the product to the control of its sales in the evening and on certain days. The number of points should also be reduced. But for this you need to sit down at the negotiating table with all interested parties and come to a certain consensus. Businessmen are our residents. They are responsible and must understand that it is not only these that can earn money, ”concludes Tatiana Savchenko.
In the meantime, in the Far East a large part of the population mortality structure is occupied by alcohol abuse. The so-called mortality from external causes in DFO equals 137 ppm, and in Russia - 104. Among such deaths, accidents lead to the background of alcohol consumption or because of the consequences of its abuse.