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Aquaculture on the march
Alexander Saveliev on regulatory and legal regulation of aqua and mariculture
14 March III III All-Russian Congress "Legal regulation of aquaculture in Russia 2018" will be held. One of the key topics: "Innovations of legislation in the regulatory and legal regulation of fish farming in 2018-2019gg." These innovations are regularly reported by the Director of the Department of Regulation in the Field of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia Evgeny Katz. And on the day of Vladimir Putin's announcement of a message to the Federal Assembly 2018 EastRussia published a statement AMKOR - Association of Mariculture Organizations of Primorsky Krai "Minvostokrazvitiya helps the development of aquaculture, but other departments are slowing down."
I listened to the President's words about the new hyper-speed weapons of the country, and the impression was that the pace of development of aquaculture in our country fell out of time and space into a surrealistic plane of allusions and paradoxes.
Every year the world aqua and mariculture grows by 4 million tons of high-quality protein. Only in China, where, by the way, there is no law on aquaculture, produce more than 50 million tons of fish. In Russia, the largest country in the world - only 150 thousand tons per year. And could only create in Primorye, Sakhalin, Kuriles, Khabarovsk Territory and in Kamchatka up to one million jobs in mariculture farms ...
The regulatory and legal regulation of aquaculture began to form at the end of the last century. The Russian Federation in 1990 year grew and sold as much about the marketable fish as it is now - about 200 thousand tons.
As soon as stimulated the development of aquaculture! Both loans and funds for the purchase of small-size fishing vessels, fish equipment, and appropriations for state support to fisheries management organizations engaged in fish farming, growing and fishing in inland waters, and funds from the target budgetary Fund for Management, Research, Conservation and Reproduction of Aquatic Biological Resources , and means of the federal leasing fund, and projects of Federal programs such as "Aquaculture of Russia in the period up to 2005", providing for They accelerated development of commercial sturgeon breeding. " A lot of documents were released on this topic.
We have been developing the law "On Aquaculture".
Fifteen years ago, a discussion and revision of proposals by specialists of enterprises and experts of the fishing industry of the Far East of the Federal Law "On Aquaculture" took place: "In 2003, the" Concept for the Development of the Fisheries of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2020 "was developed, approved by the order of the Government of the Russian Federation , which determined that the most important component of the fishery sector of the economy of any developed state is aquaculture and the intensive development of this area is one of the main tasks. "
In 2005, a draft Federal Law "On Aquaculture" was prepared. At the same time, a draft Federal Law "On Mariculture" was developed.
The following year, at the meeting “On the development of aquaculture in the Russian Federation”, which took place on September 25 in Astrakhan, Dmitry Medvedev said: “I would like to emphasize right away that at the federal and regional levels, until now, this industry has not received sufficient attention, in any case of the attention that this industry deserves today. Meanwhile, in the world fisheries, aquaculture is considered one of the key factors in saturating the domestic food market. Today it is the most dynamically developing market, the most dynamically developing industry. Suffice it to say that over the past 15 years, the volume of aquaculture, the increase in production in the industry amounted to about 45 million tons. Naturally, this means both live and chilled products. The numbers are impressive in themselves, and the leading fishing countries are not only constantly increasing their aquaculture production, but are also competing to be competitive.
Indeed, it is a very powerful, dynamically developing sector of the world economy, which, based on world estimates, provides more than a third of fish and seafood consumption. And by 2010, according to the forecasts that exist, it will provide 50% of the main fish production ... According to experts, by 2010 the annual volume of aquaculture production can be increased to 240 thousand tons, which is twice as much as last year ... in all, we believe it is right - to include aquaculture in the priority national project "Development of the agro-industrial complex" ... And the level of fish consumption - we understand this very well - is a sign of the quality of life of people. The more fish people eat, the higher the standard of living, the higher the level of income, and the naturally better health. ”
In the next year, 2007, following the results of a visiting meeting of the Presidium of the State Council of the Russian Federation, held in Astrakhan on August 31, President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin instructed the Government of the Russian Federation to develop and submit to the State Duma a draft federal law on aquaculture.
From the minutes of 04.03.2010 No. 3 of the meeting of the commission of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia on legislative activity and the development of other normative legal acts "On the progress of the preparation of the draft federal law" On aquaculture ": we decided to speed up the coordination with the interested federal executive authorities.
Finally, at the end of 2010, the government of the Russian Federation submitted to the State Duma a draft law on aquaculture.
The next year it was adopted in the first reading, and in the comments it was reported "On the Concept of the Draft Federal Law" On Aquaculture ":" A number of issues in the field of commodity fish farming are regulated by the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from 31 October 1999 No. 1201 "On the development of commercial fish farming and fisheries in inland waters of the Russian Federation ", a collection of normative and technological documentation for commercial fish farming (in two volumes) approved by the order of the Ministry of Fisheries of the USSR from 24 April 1985 No. XNU MX and other obsolete regulatory documents.
Ещё через год глава правительства Дмитрий Медведев выразил недоумение длительными сроками обсуждения данного закона. «Я вообще не понимаю, почему он не принят. Я еще в первый раз в правительстве работал — уже тогда мы его обсуждали, и до с��х пор этот закон не принят. Я не знаю, какие подводные камни, и какие проблемы существуют, но мне кажется, что нужно точку ставить».
"It feels like this law is superfluous. I do not know what is the reason, I want to see this today. In any case, I have already been instructed by the Ministry of Agriculture to take control of the necessary amendments to the bill so that to enter the adoption of this very important bill in the autumn of this year, "the head of government said..
It was then that I began to doubt that our generation would be able to take advantage of the fruits of this grueling work.
In 1999, I was a young forty-year-old man, and now I'm already in 60 and my grandchildren are growing up. They are very fond of fish and make their own contribution to increasing its consumption, which makes me and my parents very happy.
My grandchildren do not understand anything either in aquaculture or in lawmaking, but they can already visually assess on the globe the territorial advantages of our country. How can they explain that we can not take advantage of these advantages?
Another year passed.
In autumn 2014-th was a statement. "Despite the numerous statements by politicians and officials that the adopted law" On Aquaculture "is an important basis in the development of the aquaculture industry in our country, the absolute majority of entrepreneurs who took part in the profile discussions organized by Rosrybolovstvo at the agricultural exhibition" Golden Autumn " , that this Federal Law does not work. "
Over the past four years, such a number of meetings have been held on aquaculture, so many decisions have been made, so many documents have been signed, which is embarrassing to list. However, the great fishing power, as it grew at the end of the last century 150 thousand tons of fish, and grows 150 thousand tons of fish. And could, as I said, only in Primorye, Sakhalin, the Kuriles, the Khabarovsk Territory and in Kamchatka create up to one million jobs in mariculture farms ...
In the same 2014 year, experts estimated the total area of potential mariculture plantations only in Primorye in 3,8 thousand square meters. km. They can produce more than 600 thousand tons of hydrobionts per year. The most productive area is the Northern Primorye, where the total yield can be almost 350 thousand tons per year.
In general, the potential for the development of the mariculture of the Far East (industrial breeding of marine fish, aquatic plants and aquatic plants) is about 3,5 million tons in coastal zones on an area of more than 0,4 million square meters. km. "To create biotech parks on the basis of public-private partnership, there are natural and climatic conditions, the concentration of scientific and educational institutions, as well as an open perspective for competitive products in the markets of the countries of the Asia-Pacific region", - said then the former head of Rosrybolovstva Andrei Krainy. He presented the program of special territories for outstripping economic development in the field of fisheries and mariculture in the Far East to the plenipotentiary of the president in the Far Eastern Federal District, Yuri Trutnev.