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99% co-financing or one million rubles?
As federal and regional officials in different ways saw the conditions for the social development of the Far East
Social support for the Far East is one of the most painful topics: living in the region is more expensive than the national average, it is more difficult to move there, and it's not easy with demography. EastRussia at the "Days of the Far East in Moscow" watched whether the government of Russia is ready to adopt a special approach to state support, insisted on by the Far Eastern governors and the relevant ministry for the development of the Far East.
The session "How to achieve social development of the Far East is above the average Russian level" has become one of the key in the business program "Days of the Far East in Moscow": federal officials of the social bloc, including the head of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection Maxim Topilin, and governors of the Far Eastern subjects - with the support of the deputy head of the Minsk region, Arthur Niyazmetov, who is responsible in the department for building cooperation with other ministries.
Maxim Topilin put before the Far Eastern governors a task that, according to the representatives of the Ministry of Labor, is the main one: raising wages. "We are worried that despite the fact that real wages are rising on average in Russia, real incomes do not happen in the Far East in every region," he said. "Governors should pay close attention to this. all the rest".
Before the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District, from recent times, we recall, is not an easy task. At the third Eastern Economic Forum, the head of state, Vladimir Putin, instructed the government to find ways to ensure that the indices of socio-economic development of the Far East are higher than average Russian ones. But at the federal level, most support measures for all subjects are the same. And, for example, Far Eastern payments for the first and second child, which Vladimir Putin offered to pay from 1 January, will indeed be higher than the average Russian ones, as Maxim Topilin mentioned at the "Days of the Far East in Moscow". But only for one reason - in the Far East the regional children's subsistence minimum is higher.
How difficult it is to make the Far East develop faster in the social sphere, Arthur Niyazmetov explained on specific examples. Thus, subsidies to families with the appearance of a third child are paid mainly from the budgets of regions with federal co-financing, the official recalled. "Alas, this federal support is provided only to those regions where the birth rate is not very good.Therefore, such Far Eastern subjects of the Russian Federation as the Yakutia and the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in which women traditionally give birth to more than two children do not receive federal support. - but until the situation with fertility has improved here, although in fact the huge macroregion is very poorly populated, especially Chukotka - 50 thousand people, "said Arthur Niyazmetov.
As a second example, he cited programs to increase labor mobility, which provides financial assistance to employers attracting new workers from other regions. Now the size of aggregate support is the same for any constituent entities of the Russian Federation - this is 225 thousand rubles per employee. According to the Ministry of Labor, which led Maxim Topilin, the programs operate in seven of the nine regions of the Far Eastern Federal District - except for Yakutia and the Jewish Autonomous Region. But from 2015 on 15 October 2017 year in the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District was attracted only 589 people. "In this sense, the Far East is again specific - it is very large and the most remote from the center of Russia," said Arthur Niyazmetov. Accordingly, in Minvostokrazvitiya believe that "there must be a differentiated measure of support and the most moving - depending on how far the person moves, and how many members of the family they take with them," said the deputy head of the Minsk region.
NOT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE COUNTRY
Of course, the Far Eastern governors are more interested in the approach of the Ministry of the East, than in the social bloc of the government. Khabarovsk Governor Vyacheslav Shport at the session, for example, suggested that Maxim Topilin “simplify the task” of encouraging the relocation of workers. "Let's give a million to those who are traveling, and 100 thousand for each family member. Let him report to them," said Vyacheslav Shport. According to him, before 2022, only the Khabarovsk Territory will need 10-12 thousand new employees for enterprises created within the framework of the territories of priority development and the Free Port of Vladivostok. “And they are not there - we need to carry them,” he said (quoted by Interfax).
Other governors also spoke in favor of a special approach to the Far East. The head of the Amur Region, Alexander Kozlov, called upon "not to demand to build a school in Tynda as quickly as somewhere in the center of Russia: there is winter - and very fierce - it starts much earlier, and ends much later."
And Alexander Levintal, governor of the Jewish Autonomous Region, asked during the development of various federal plans for the Far East not to consider it as a single whole, but to take into account the huge difference between the subjects of the Russian Federation within the Far Eastern Federal District. "If the federal center offers the subject a joint subsidization of some projects from the cost ratio of nine to one in favor of the entity, it does not mean that every subject will even bear this burden," said the governor. "For example, our region is so undeveloped in the socio- economic plan against the background of other Far Eastern subjects that we can draw costs only from the ratio of 99 to 1. "
It is the last mechanism - up to 99% of co-financing, - note, with a successful coincidence of circumstances from next year will receive not only the Jewish autonomy, but all other regions of the Far East. At the "Days of the Far East in Moscow," Arthur Niyazmetov said that the Ministry of Regional Development has developed amendments to the rules for the formation, provision and distribution of subsidies from the federal budget to the budgets of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation - specifically to support the "growth points" that appear in the Far East. "The key thing that is stipulated in these rules is the same approach of all Far Eastern regions in federal programs, namely 99% of co-financing from the federal budget. This is very important, especially for those regions that have been credited," the official said (quoted by Interfax "). The latter include the Amur Region and the EAO.
THE MAGIC OF SOFINANCING
At the moment, the rules for granting subsidies to regional budgets and the principles of their distribution are established by Decree of the Russian Government No. 999 - it was adopted in 2014 year, and the last time in October was changed by 2017. The amount of co-financing is determined by a different formula for the budgets of the subjects depending on the level of the estimated budget provision for the current fiscal year: it can be more or equal to 1 or less than 1. In the Far East, the region with a “bold” budget will have only one in 2018 - the Sakhalin Oblast (the level of fiscal security is 1,538), all the rest have a figure less than 1: from 0,853 in the Khabarovsk Territory to 0,647 in Yakutia.
However, this does not mean that the Yakut budget will be in the conditions of the least co-financing. Annually, the government of the Russian Federation determines the maximum level of co-financing of the regions' expenditures. At 2018-2020 years, according to the government's decree from 12 July 2017 No. 1476-p, which sets the corresponding indicators, in the majority of cases, the Far Eastern subjects of the Russian Federation do not count for 99%. But the picture is very different depending on the subject. For Yakutia, this is a maximum of 92% co-financing, Kamchatka is 95%, Primorye is 88%, Khabarovsk Territory is 84%, the Amur Region is 85%, Magadan Region is 91%, Sakhalin Region is 43%, Jewish Autonomy is 90%, Chukotka - 92%.
At the same time, since the summer of 2017-th in the ruling regulating the distribution of federal subsidies, there is a reservation. If "individually defined measures having national importance" are implemented in the region, which is appropriated on the basis of acts of the president or the government of the country, co-financing for capital construction or acquisition of real estate objects may exceed the maximum level - and be up to 99%.
It is the last mechanism, apparently, and they plan to take advantage of in Minvostokrazvitiya.
On behalf of Vladimir Putin to 1 February 2018, all subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District must approve plans for integrated socio-economic development until 2025-2030. Activities in general are regular: the system of regional strategic planning decree of the president prescribes to build throughout the country. But the plans of the regions of the Far East are focused on the federal center for several reasons. First, the first such document was in 2016 a long-term development plan for the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Khabarovsk Territory), the second is the development plan for the city of Svobodny (Amur Region). Practice decided to consolidate the example of the regions - all of them have already drafted the relevant documents, including a variety of projects, including investment. The second important component - on the basis of the plans of the subjects of the Far-Eastern Federal District, the Ministry of Color Industry forms the so-called "Far Eastern sections" in all state programs.
Now, apparently, the subjects of the FEF are to prepare new plans - while they are called "comprehensive plans for the social development of economic growth centers." The documents should set out benchmarks for social indicators and schedules for the entry of social objects. 99% co-financing can be obtained only on the objects of social development plans of economic growth centers. Such "points of growth," explained the Minister for the Development of the Far East, Alexander Galushka, now 44. By 29 December, 2017, the ministry together with the Ministry of Finance explain, in the ministry, the draft amendments to the current rules for the distribution of subsidies, which will make it possible to receive up to 99% of co-financing from the federal budget for certain Far Eastern objects of "sotsialka".