Irkutsk
Ulan-Ude

Blagoveshchensk
Chita
Yakutsk

Birobidzhan
Vladivostok
Khabarovsk

Magadan
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

Anadyr
Petropavlovsk-
Kamchatsky
Moscow

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99% co-financing or one million rubles?

As federal and regional officials in different ways saw the conditions for the social development of the Far East

Social support for the Far East is one of the most painful topics: living in the region is more expensive than the national average, it is more difficult to move there, and it's not easy with demography. EastRussia at the "Days of the Far East in Moscow" watched whether the government of Russia is ready to adopt a special approach to state support, insisted on by the Far Eastern governors and the relevant ministry for the development of the Far East.

99% co-financing or one million rubles?
Photo: eao.ru
MINTRUD OF SALARY PAYMENT, FAR EAST - PRO-PAYMENT

The session "How to achieve the social development of the Far East above the average Russian level" became one of the key sessions within the framework of the business program of the Days of the Far East in Moscow: federal officials of the social block, including the head of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection Maxim Topilin, and the governors of the Far Eastern regions gathered for the discussion - with the support of Artur Niyazmetov, Deputy Head of the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, who is responsible in the department for building interaction with other ministries. 

Maxim Topilin set the task for the Far Eastern governors, which, according to representatives of the Ministry of Labor, is the main one: increasing wages. “We are worried that despite the fact that, on average, real wages and real incomes are growing in Russia, this does not happen in every region in the Far East," he said. "Governors need to pay close attention to this. Without this it is useless to do all the rest". 

Before the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District, from recent times, we recall, is not an easy task. At the third Eastern Economic Forum, the head of state, Vladimir Putin, instructed the government to find ways to ensure that the indices of socio-economic development of the Far East are higher than average Russian ones. But at the federal level, most support measures for all subjects are the same. And, for example, Far Eastern payments for the first and second child, which Vladimir Putin offered to pay from 1 January, will indeed be higher than the average Russian ones, as Maxim Topilin mentioned at the "Days of the Far East in Moscow". But only for one reason - in the Far East the regional children's subsistence minimum is higher.  

How difficult it is to make the Far East develop rapidly in the social sphere, Artur Niyazmetov explained with specific examples. So, subsidies to families with the appearance of a third child are paid mainly from the budgets of the regions with federal co-financing, the official reminded. "Alas, this federal support is provided only to those regions where the birth rate is not very good. Therefore, such Far Eastern subjects of the Russian Federation as Yakutia and the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, in which women traditionally give birth to more than two children, do not receive federal support. Khabarovsk Territory received no support. - but until the situation with the birth rate has improved here. Although in fact the huge macro-region is very poorly populated, especially Chukotka - 50 thousand people, "said Artur Niyazmetov. 

As a second example, he cited programs to improve labor mobility, which provide financial assistance to employers who attract new workers from other regions. Now the amount of aggregate support is the same for any constituent entity of the Russian Federation - it is 225 thousand rubles per employee. According to the Ministry of Labor, cited by Maxim Topilin, the programs operate in seven of the nine regions of the Far Eastern Federal District - except for Yakutia and the Jewish Autonomous Region. But from 2015 to October 15, 2017, only 589 people were attracted to the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District. “In this sense, the Far East is again specific - it is very large and the most distant from the center of Russia,” said Artur Niyazmetov. Accordingly, the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East believes that "a differentiated measure of support should also be applied to the person who is moving, depending on how far the person travels and how many family members he takes with him," said the deputy head of the Ministry of Eastern Development.

NOT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE COUNTRY

The Far Eastern governors, of course, are more impressed by the approach of the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East than the social block of the government. Khabarovsk Governor Vyacheslav Shport, at the session, for example, suggested to Maxim Topilin "to simplify the task" of stimulating the relocation of workers. "Let's give a million to the one who travels, and 100 thousand for each family member. Let him account for them," said Vyacheslav Shport. According to him, until 2022, the Khabarovsk Territory alone will need 10-12 thousand new workers for enterprises created within the framework of the priority development territories and the Free Port of Vladivostok. "And they are not there - we need to take them," he said (quoted by Interfax).

Other governors also advocated a special approach to the Far East. The head of the Amur Region, Alexander Kozlov, urged "not to demand to build a school in Tynda as quickly as somewhere in the center of Russia: there winter - and very fierce - begins much earlier and ends much later." 

And the governor of the Jewish Autonomous Region, Alexander Levintal, asked when developing various federal plans for the Far East not to consider it as a whole, but to take into account the huge difference between the constituent entities of the Russian Federation within the Far Eastern Federal District. "If the federal center offers a subject joint subsidizing of some projects at a cost ratio of nine to one in favor of the subject, this does not mean that every subject will pull even this burden," said the governor. "For example, our region is so underdeveloped in social economically, against the background of other Far Eastern entities, we can only pull costs from a 99 to 1 ratio. "

It is the last mechanism - up to 99% of co-financing - we note that, with a successful combination of circumstances, not only the Jewish Autonomy, but also all other regions of the Far East will receive from next year. At the Days of the Far East in Moscow, Artur Niyazmetov said that the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East had developed amendments to the rules for the formation, provision and distribution of subsidies from the federal budget to the budgets of the RF constituent entities - specifically to support the “growth points” that appear in the Far East. "The key thing that these rules provide is the same approach of all Far Eastern regions in federal programs, namely 99% of co-financing from the federal budget. This is very important, especially for those regions that are credited," the official said (quoted by Interfax "). The latter include the Amur Region and the Jewish Autonomous Region.

THE MAGIC OF SOFINANCING

At the moment, the rules for granting subsidies to regional budgets and the principles of their distribution are established by the decree of the Russian government No. 999 - it was adopted in 2014, and was last changed in October 2017. The amount of co-financing is determined according to a different formula for the budgets of the subjects, depending on the level of estimated budgetary provision for the current financial year: it can be more or equal to 1 or less than 1. In the Far East, there will be only one region with a "fat" budget in 2018 - the Sakhalin Region (the level of budgetary provision is 1,538), for all the rest - the indicator is less than 1: from 0,853 in the Khabarovsk Territory to 0,647 in Yakutia. 

However, this does not mean that the Yakut budget will find itself in the conditions of the least co-financing. Every year the Russian government determines the maximum level of co-financing of regional expenditures. For 2018-2020, according to the government order of July 12, 2017 No. 1476-r, which sets the appropriate indicators, the Far Eastern constituent entities of the Russian Federation in most cases cannot count on 99%. But the picture is strikingly different depending on the subject. For Yakutia, this is a maximum of 92% of co-financing, Kamchatka - 95%, Primorye - 88%, Khabarovsk Krai - 84%, Amur Oblast - 85%, Magadan Oblast - 91%, Sakhalin Oblast - 43%, Jewish Autonomy - 90%, Chukotka - 92%. 

At the same time, since the summer of 2017, there is a reservation in the decree regulating the distribution of federal subsidies. If the region implements "individually defined measures of national importance", which is assigned on the basis of acts of the president or government of the country, then co-financing for capital construction or the acquisition of real estate may exceed the maximum level - and be up to 99%.

It is the last mechanism, apparently, and they plan to take advantage of in Minvostokrazvitiya. 

On behalf of Vladimir Putin to 1 February 2018, all subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District must approve plans for integrated socio-economic development until 2025-2030. Activities in general are regular: the system of regional strategic planning decree of the president prescribes to build throughout the country. But the plans of the regions of the Far East are focused on the federal center for several reasons. First, the first such document was in 2016 a long-term development plan for the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Khabarovsk Territory), the second is the development plan for the city of Svobodny (Amur Region). Practice decided to consolidate the example of the regions - all of them have already drafted the relevant documents, including a variety of projects, including investment. The second important component - on the basis of the plans of the subjects of the Far-Eastern Federal District, the Ministry of Color Industry forms the so-called "Far Eastern sections" in all state programs.  
 
Now, apparently, the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District will have to prepare new plans - for now they are called "comprehensive plans for the social development of centers of economic growth." The documents should contain guidelines for social indicators and schedules for the introduction of social facilities. 99% of co-financing can be obtained only for objects of plans for social development of centers of economic growth. There are 44 such "points of growth", said the Minister for Development of the Far East Alexander Galushka, now there are 29. By December 2017, 99, the department, together with the Ministry of Finance, the ministry explains, should submit to the government of the Russian Federation a draft of amendments to the current rules for the distribution of subsidies that will make it possible XNUMX% of co-financing from the federal budget for certain Far Eastern social facilities. 
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